Graduate Course Descriptions

IAFF 6102 Global Gender Policy

This course takes an interdisciplinary approach to examining the development of global policy aimed at achieving gender equality. The course provides an overview of the concept of gender equality, its capture in global policy and approaches to advancing implementation of select thematic areas of gender equality policy at global and country levels. Participants will gain knowledge of the genealogy of the current architecture of global gender equality policy, learn to critique policy approaches taken to advance gender equality and become familiar with the various strategies and tools used to advance implementation of these policies. Discussion of thematic policy areas includes formal economy employment, international security policy, education, health, violence against women, and responses to humanitarian crises.


 

IAFF 6108 International Development Policy

This course examines the scope and nature of international development assistance and the challenges currently facing development agencies.  It surveys development theory since Bretton Woods and the Marshall Plan and considers how changes have been reflected in the operational strategies of leading bilateral and multilateral donors.  Then the focus of the course will shift to the methods and tools that characterize the work of principal donors, from needs assessment and project design to evaluation.  The effectiveness of development assistance will be an important theme of this course, in particular how mixed results have brought methods and concepts into question and how agencies are responding to this challenge.


 

IAFF 6118 Data Analytics for International Affairs

This course provides a foundational overview of data analytics in the social sciences. Students will be introduced to concepts in data, statistics, and research methodology. The course will then explore how to use and interpret descriptive statistics; how to measure, categorize, and evaluate variables; where to find data for analysis; and how to critically evaluate analytical research. In the second half of the course, students will examine the rules underlying statistical models, statistical significance, and causal inference, and interpret a variety of models used in quantitative research. This course is quantitative in nature, but does not require advanced mathematical knowledge.


 

IAFF 6118 Gender, War, and Peace 

With a specific focus on women’s rights, roles, and experiences of war and peacebuilding, this course thematically examines war as a gendered phenomenon, using feminist analysis as a theoretical frame. The seminar thematically covers issues such as: masculinities, femininities, and militarization; violent actors and the politics of gendered victim/perpetrator roles; wartime gendered violence; the post-war context and critical examination of global laws, policies, and normative approaches to international peace and security. The seminar focuses on a number of case study contexts globally and will draw on feminist and gender theory while also examining policy and practice approaches to addressing the gendered aspects of war and peace.


 

IAFF 6118 Public-Private Sector Collaboration to Address Global Challenges

This course is designed to foster your creative and informed thinking about how to bring seemingly divergent interests—i.e., government, nonprofits, and the private sector—together around common goals, and how to piece together respective strengths and weaknesses to address and maybe even solve challenges in international affairs. You will learn about the comparative advantages of each sector, when and why collaboration may be helpful (or unavoidable), and specific ways cross-sector collaborations are engaged to address challenges in international affairs. Teams are a microcosm of what cross-sector collaborations aim to do: make the most of what each member has to offer to achieve a common goal. You will learn about team dynamics and tools for effective teamwork as you work in teams to design a hypothetical cross-sector collaboration to address an issue area of your choosing, grounded in a real organizational context. Aspirational goals for students in this course include to: gain a sophisticated understanding of the different paths, actors, and combinations of how change is made in the world; think beyond the obvious solutions or usual ways of doing things to propose creative and impactful approaches to addressing challenges in international affairs; and become the individual in your professional context who has that unique idea that no one else thought of but that everyone agrees is the obvious way for all to benefit independently and collectively.


 

IAFF 6118 International Law 

This course will cover the fundamental underpinnings of international law, with a focus on Public International Law, and address specialized topics ranging from environmental law to the law of war. At the end of the course, students should be conversant with the international legal order and have a strong understanding of the law’s applicability to international issues.


 

IAFF 6118 Nuclear Security Policy

This graduate seminar familiarizes students with the topics, institutions, and tools necessary to understand, inform, develop, and implement nuclear security policy, encompassing the security of weapons-usable nuclear materials and the prevention of nuclear terrorism and proliferation by denying access to these materials.  Special emphasis will be given to contemporary trends including state failure, the role of non-state actors, diffusion of dual-use technology, and the development of disruptive technology. Students will be evaluated on the basis of the development of five types of communication products relevant to nuclear security policy debates:  1) an action memorandum to a senior U.S. Government official, 2) an op-ed piece suitable for a mass distribution publication, 3) a white paper proposing work to a potential client or funder, 4) a non-paper communicating a policy position to a foreign government, and 5) an action alert suitable for distribution to an activist network.


 

IAFF 6118 International Relations in Africa

This graduate seminar provides an intensive survey of the broad structures and processes of international politics and foreign policy in Africa since independence in 1960, and especially the more recent events that have shaped African international relations since the end of the Cold War. It will also focus on normative international relations theory by examining IR Security theories including realism, liberalism and the new globalisms in the context of Africa’s contemporary place in international relations. The course will base the analysis of African actors’ agency in global politics on major historical formations that inform current transformations in African affairs and how African politicians and political leaders navigate an increasingly complex international environment. Some of the themes addressed will include the legacies of the Cold War; economic constraints and opportunities and influence on foreign policies of African states; the increasing prominence of non-state actors in Africa’s international political and security arena; and the role of various continental and regional organizations in norm creation, economic integration, and conflict management. This course will be useful for anymore who wants to get a better understanding of foreign policy imperatives and formulation in Africa and their relevance to regional politics and security in the region.


 

IAFF 6118 U.S. Policy Toward Africa

This course will examine the evolution of interests, institutions, and instruments that have shaped U.S. engagement in Africa from the Cold War to the present day. In the first half of the semester, students will examine key pivot points in U.S.-Africa policy and debate the policy dilemmas and contradictions that competing interests and priorities have generated.  In the second half of the semester, students will analyze and debate contemporary issues in U.S.-Africa policy: How best should the U.S. respond to rising competition in Africa from China and other global actors? How will increasingly divergent governance and economic growth trajectories on the continent shape U.S. priorities and partnerships? How best, and through what instruments, should the U.S. engage African conflicts and security challenges? How is U.S. development assistance changing? What domestic and global factors are most likely to shape U.S. interest and engagement in Africa going forward? Students should come away with a more critical and nuanced understanding of U.S. engagement in post-independence Africa, and an ability to analyze and assess how new developments in Africa impact U.S. interests and policy choices.


 

IAFF 6118 Social Impact & Design Thinking

This interdisciplinary social impact innovation class puts human experience at the forefront of problem-solving and teaches quadruple bottom line (QBL) thinking. Design thinking and human centered design methodologies are engaged critically and applied to real world problem solving with social impact players, including community partners. You will acquire horizontal skills critical to be successful in the workplace and/or start you own venture. The course  is run in a lecture–studio format. Generally, the first half is devoted to content exploration and the second half, to studio time and hands-on work. Accordingly, guest faculty and experts will assist from time to time with content exploration and activities, and cross-disciplinary student teams will be ensured time to work together during the studio portion of class most periods. Each team will work with a social impact startup.


 

IAFF 6118 Public Policy, Governance, and the Global Market

In a world where interactions between business and politics are becoming increasingly important, it is essential to gain a better understanding of how firms can engage with stakeholders in their broader business environment. Regardless of whether you will pursue a career in the private sector, in government, at an international organization, in the diplomatic service or at an NGO, knowledge of topics at the intersection of firm strategy, global markets and politics will be invaluable for your professional career. In this course we will examine questions in this interdisciplinary area, such as, how firms shape their broader business environment by pursuing integrated market and non-market strategies or how managers successfully engage with different stakeholders. The course will cover numerous timely topics, including corporate political strategy, stakeholder engagement, lobbying, how to analyze a firm’s business environment, the world economy, climate change, sustainable development and strategy, the ethical dimensions of business, firms’ interactions with political actors, corruption, and the interplay of global markets and politics.


 

IAFF 6118 Security Challenges in Africa

This advanced seminar provides an intensive survey of Africa’s current and emerging security threats, and identifies and examines ways to resolve these challenges in a holistic manner in order to sustain security, stability and development. It is designed to enable students to understand, analyze, and effectively communicate about security threats on the continent and to sharpen their ability to make policy-oriented recommendations for strengthening peace and security in the region. Our discussions will center on the political, economic, and social contexts out of which these threats arise, and the local, regional, and global factors that fuel or facilitate them. We take a closer look at how the U.S and other governments’ engagement and regional cooperation in the fight against extremist groups, transnational threats, and other challenges impact security dynamics and regional peace. The course will connect theory to practice through discussion, policy analysis, research, case study review of real events, and engagement with security experts. It will be useful for anyone with an interest in the continent’s changing security landscape, including professionals in the fields of diplomacy, journalism, development assistance, humanitarian aid or security broadly defined.


 

IAFF 6118 Human Rights Successes 

This course examines successful efforts to expand and deepen the respect, protection, and fulfillment of human rights globally. It focuses on efforts of organizing, advocacy, campaigning, political engagement, policy change, and education that have tangibly, substantially, and meaningfully advanced the practice and realization of human rights. It considers both historical and contemporary human rights advancements and addresses the dynamic nature of human rights protection and fulfillment. The course considers how and why these human rights efforts have been successful and what we can learn from and apply from them in seeking to further advance human rights. The full spectrum of human rights including civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights will be addressed in the course.


 

IAFF 6118 Capacity Building in Thailand 

During this project-based study abroad course, students will work directly with a client, BEAM Education Foundation, to complete a project aimed at meeting the client’s needs. BEAM provides education for migrants and refugees in Thailand with the goal of increasing their access to higher education. The course will meet weekly from the beginning of the spring semester until spring break, with the goal of assessing BEAM's needs and preparing students for their work with BEAM. Participants will then spend roughly seven days in Chiang Mai, Thailand over spring break collaborating with BEAM.  After traveling to Thailand, the group will meet 2-3 times throughout the rest of the semester. Throughout the program, students will engage in all of the steps necessary to design and implement a consultancy project for BEAM. They will first conduct a needs assessment to determine how best they can support BEAM. Based on this assessment, students will scope out the project and produce deliverables to meet BEAM’s needs. These deliverables will serve as the final assignments for the class.


 

IAFF 6122 Development Policy & Practice

International development is a dynamic field of theory, policy and practice. Understanding all three and their intersections is crucial to working effectively in the field of development. The politics and practice of international development have changed dramatically over the past 60 years. Development practitioners must be prepared to adapt to a climate that shifts constantly in response to changes in organizational structure, policy mandates and practice patterns. This course will be conducted as a graduate-level seminar, in which assigned readings will be discussed in class. Careful reading of required texts, reports and other documents is a key component of this course, as is preparation of materials relevant to class assignments. Students will be expected to contribute robustly to class discussions, articulating informed opinions and understanding of authors’ arguments.


 

IAFF 6138 Care of Children in Humanitarian Emergencies

Whether the crisis is a natural disaster, a violent conflict, or epidemic of infectious disease, children caught in complex humanitarian emergencies are among the most vulnerable in the world. This course is designed to give students a broad understanding of the history of humanitarian assistance provision including an overview of the critical needs and challenges of serving children in complex emergencies. In exploring these needs and challenges, emphasis will be place on understanding the nuances of care that accompany a comprehensive humanitarian response from a child rights perspective. The course will explore both different policy, programming and protection frameworks through the lens of children and the organizational, operational and moral challenges to assistance provision. Further, the course will examine the role of international law and actors, as well as conventional understandings of protection, resilience, best interests, and assistance.


 

IAFF 6138 Violence, Gender, and Humanitarian Assistance

The objective of the course is to engage students in developing a practical understanding of the issues, challenges, policies, and interventions around one of the most challenging health, human rights, and protection issues in humanitarian emergencies. Gender-based violence (GBV) is a multi-sectoral, multi-level, and inter- organizational problem. To further complicate the issue, GBV is on the blurry line between “humanitarian aid” and “development”. Each class will involve active student participation, with the instructor and/or guest speaker giving a brief presentation (including case studies and short films) and students summarizing the key issues and discussion points from assigned readings, followed by discussion and analysis.


 

IAFF 6138 Democracy & Governance Development

This graduate seminar focuses on democracy and governance within the field of comparative politics, looking at these specific topics as they are applied to development. Rather than taking a specific, geographic focus, this course is organized to investigate substantive topics across the democracy and governance spectrum. A number of country-specific examples and cases will be explored to test the application of theories and to deepen students’ appreciation of the extent and limits of democracy and governance development.


 

IAFF 6138 Strategic Environmental Management 

While many in the business, government, and non-profit sectors view environmental protection as a threat to competitiveness, others see win-win opportunities. This course provides students with graduate level knowledge and real life case examples that will allow them to design profitable corporate environmental management strategies. After taking this course, students will be able to:1. Formulate profitable corporate environmental management strategies. 2. Evaluate the effectiveness of green differentiation advantage strategies.3. Explain how corporate environmental strategies are affected by: stakeholder pressures, distinctive country contexts, and variations in business-level characteristics. And 4. Explain the opportunities/challenges of climate change trends for businesses.


 

IAFF 6138 Gender and Economic Development

This course examines contemporary economic development and its ties to gender. Within economic development, gender and other categories of identity such as ethnic group, disability status, and educational level link both to inequalities and responses to them. To study gender and economic development, this course will explore: workforce opportunity; resource access; policy funding; asset ownership; carework distribution; trade liberalization; and household, community and national-level decision-making. Students in this course become familiar with recent analyses of the relationships between gender and economic development from a range of sources and disciples. Students also learn to provide their own recommendations concerning these issues.


 

IAFF 6138 Private Sector Development

The process necessary for countries to experience per capita GDP growth and create fiscal resources necessary for broader development begins at the firm level.  Yet, in some countries, it is difficult for firms to grow, or at least grow to levels that support improved health, education and welfare desired by most citizens. This course will examine the ecosystems for economic growth at the firm level. Lectures, readings and class activities will acclimate students to the complexities of growth, while identifying and critiquing common approaches by donor agencies to enterprise development.  Students will apply their knowledge by constructing a hypothetical country strategy that would be used in the design of projects, programs and activities over a defined period.  The student will be introduced to the elements of project design and evaluation, as well other commonly used financial tools to support enterprise development.


 

IAFF 6138 Evidence-Based Evaluations in International Development

The goal of an evidence-based practice (EBP) for programs and policymaking in international development is to more rigorously drive funding and support toward policies and projects that achieve high quality positive social outcomes for people at the lowest possible cost.  In this advanced course, students will learn the theory and practice of evaluation in public policy, deepen their understanding of the evaluation problems of attribution and causality, and learn how to work with a range of evaluation research designs beyond the experimental “gold standard” to assess the continuum of evidence of effectiveness.  In the U.S., the Foundations for Evidence Based Policymaking Act of 2018 requires federal agencies to revamp their approach to evaluation and evidence building from an activity that is conducted “ad hoc” to a process that is fully integrated into the ongoing operations of federal programs. For development implementers, the U.S. government and global donors to foreign assistance programs, as well as the private sector in social impact investments, now mandate evidence-based interventions.   At the same time, the development challenge is to seek better ways to achieve systemic change in complex settings where we may know little about “what works,” or how to adapt and scale replicable programs. Designed for students with a basic understanding of monitoring and evaluation, project design and policy analysis, this course will provide advanced practice and skills in working with project teams, donors and policymakers to develop, manage and justify EBP projects. On the policy side, the course will cover performance measurement, indicator and non-indicator monitoring and measurement, program audits, data transparency requirements, value-for-money assessments and new donor funding tools such as pay-for-performance.  On the practice side, the course will introduce new tools such as adaptive management, use of evaluation platforms for real-time data, responsible data management, and third-party monitoring. Emphasis will be placed on deepening evaluator and project skills in using logic models and theories of change for impact management using theory-based evaluation techniques and tools that support causal inference, utilize benchmarking, and build upon the growing set of global development and evaluation standards.


 

IAFF 6138 Gender and Development

This graduate-level seminar will begin by examining the evolution of theoretical approaches regarding gender and development and the debates that have emerged over how to promote gender equity and rights across the gender spectrum. We will then consider some of the key issues in the field of gender and development and the challenges and successes that development practitioners have experienced in addressing gender inequalities. Throughout the course, we will seek to identify general patterns and lessons with broader applications as well as to recognize differences within and between societies. We will use a combination of academic sources, international development reports, and other materials produced by development practitioners to ground our discussions and study how organizations have sought to implement gender-sensitive approaches to development. The assignments are practical and relevant to professional work in the field of gender and development.


 

IAFF 6138 Global Food Security

The main goal of this course is to help you understand, analyze, and evaluate contemporary issues in global food security. A secondary, related goal is to hone your writing skills as they pertain to international development policy. Several broad, practical questions structure the class. First, what is food security, and how is it measured? Second, what are the primary causes of food insecurity? Third, what enhances food security? Along the way, we will emphasize a number of themes: the Sustainable Development Goals (especially Goal 2); the respective influence of evidence and politics in policy formation; the special, collaborative roles different bodies (e.g., the state, the private sector, research institutions, non-governmental organizations, international donors) play in effective food security initiatives; critiques of, and alternatives to, mainstream food security policy; rural and agricultural development; technology; nutrition; climate change; gender; and the scale-dependent nature of challenges to, and solutions for, food security (i.e., international vs. regional vs. household-level). Special attention will be given to Feed the Future, the flagship global food security initiative of the U.S. government. In class, we will seek to apply our readings to current events in three regions: Latin America, Southeast Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa.


 

IAFF 6138 Humanitarian Action in Conflict

This course introduces students and practitioners to the theories and practices of humanitarian action in a conflict situation. The changing nature of conflict and the emergence of new armed actors has led to the erosion of humanitarian space and limited interventions. These changes have, in turn, led to best practices to effectively respond to a humanitarian crisis. This course combines lectures and experiential learning activities to analyze contemporary issues and emerging debates in humanitarian action. The first part of the class reviews the history and evolution of humanitarianism, humanitarian principles, code of conduct, and international humanitarian law. The second part of the course examines the humanitarian operation in conflict context—the link between humanitarian and development assistance, relief operations and management, coordination, negotiations for access, accountability, insecurity, and safety guidelines. The last part of the class features analysis of humanitarian organizations working in conflict situation and country case studies.


 

IAFF 6138 Climate Change & Sustainable Development

With climate change impacts being felt across many parts of the world – particularly in fragile states and those least able to adapt – climate change has become a central part of the global sustainable development agenda.  The concept of climate resilient development is bringing core climate science into development strategies and programs, and posing significant questions about how development investments are made and how results are measured.  It also raises key ethical questions about the expectations placed on developing countries to mitigate their greenhouse gas emissions as well as the role of developed countries to support developing countries to adapt to climate change. This course will investigate the science of climate change, the impacts for developing countries, and the theoretical foundations of policy responses.  It will also delve into the practical opportunities and challenges related to addressing climate change in developing countries and integrating climate change considerations into existing development approaches. 


 

IAFF 6138 Bottom-Up Development

From William Easterly to Dambisa Moyo, and from Jeffrey sachs to Paul Collier, development thinkers have expressed both considerable frustration with policies, programs, strategies and institutions charged with alleviating poverty, as well as the need to focus additional resources on or reformed actions toward populations at the ‘bottom.’ Despite the analyses and fretting, and resultant actions, hundreds of millions, if not more than a billion, of the earth’s population remains tragically poor, somehow managing to survive on $2.00 a day or less. This graduate seminar takes these analyses, frustrations and unsatisfactory results as a starting point to delve into prospects for more effective poverty alleviation through the application of ‘bottom-up’ approaches. After briefly examining failings of foreign aid from both grassroots and top-down perspectives, the focus turns to bottom-up approaches, casting an eye on evolutionary aspects, critical components, and current applications. Subsequently, attention is placed on how poor people manage to survive, and in some cases get ahead, with few resources, before turning to an examination of several increasingly noted mechanisms responding to poor people’s needs for assistance to improve their economic standing. The seminar closes with consideration of the pros and cons of these mechanisms and approaches, and their prospects for achieving poverty alleviation from the bottom-up.


 

IAFF 6139 IDS Capstone


 

IAFF 6146 Space Law

This course is designed to provide a basic understanding of legal principles and issues in domestic and international space law. Students will read and critically evaluate the U.N. treaties that establish legal principles of international space law and show how legal institutions are organized and interact both nationally and internationally; demonstrate an understanding of the multifaceted nature of legal and policy issues and demonstrate how to approach problems in an interdisciplinary manner; and acquire the background knowledge and analytical tools that will allow them to address problems, recommend policy and legal options as well as specific legal solutions, and evaluate the possible outcomes in different settings.


 

IAFF 6151 Environmental Policy

This seminar course examines environmental policy and politics from an international perspective.  The course will introduce students to the fundamentals of international environmental policymaking processes, such as key policy paradigms, actors, and institutions; familiarize students with critical issue areas including climate change, ozone depletion, international resource conservation, and others; and examine environmental policymaking as it relates to other issue areas such as science and technology and international development. The goal is to prepare students to think critically and analyze environmental policy and politics in the context of the global political system. Students should come away from the course with a clearer understanding of what environmental policy entails, in terms of both practice and of outcomes; what the range of relevant policy options and key issue areas are; and a generally broader knowledge of international environmental issues and the factors, drivers, and constraints that affect them. 


 

IAFF 6153 Science, Technology & National Security Policy

A broad, complex, and multidimensional set of factors contribute to the ability of states to use science and technology to advance their national security. This course examines how effectively states, and the United States in particular, develop policies designed to translate science and technology into strategic advantage. To assess these factors the course addresses a range of issues including innovation, revolutions in military affairs, globalization and international economic integration, technology transfer and export controls, changing global security dynamics, and the impact of emerging technologies on defense industries and military power. Major themes addressed throughout the course would form parts of any integrative framework for understanding the interplay between science, technology, and national security policy.


 

IAFF 6158 Economics of Space

This course will address international space policy issues facing the United States and place them in context with broader technological advances and the changing strategic environment. The course will address current bureaucratic and regulatory issues facing U.S. space programs with regard to dual-use technologies, including export controls, spectrum management, and licensing of commercial remote sensing systems. Conflicts over dual-use technologies, such as space launch, remote sensing, satellite navigation, and communications, will be examined for their implications for a range of national interests. The course will also address strategic choices facing other nations in space activities, including dependence on U.S., European, and Russian space capabilities, developing indigenous space programs, and use of commercial space capabilities.


 

IAFF 6158 Energy Policy

This course focuses on the patterns of international energy policy-making and implementation, energy geopolitics, and the emergence of environmental and institutional challenges that will fundamentally reshape the way global society extracts and consumes energy. It is organized around historical patterns, current issues, and future prospects. An integrating theme is the role played by science and technology.


 

IAFF 6158 Cybersecurity

This course will focus on the transnational impact of non-state actors on international policy and security. We will analyze different types of actors, from transnational criminal organizations to NGOs to terrorist groups primarily through case studies. Students will consider the interaction of non-state actors with state actors, evaluating impacts on sovereignty and governance worldwide.


 

IAFF 6160 Defense Policy & Program Analysis I

Since the National Security Act of 1947 established the Department of Defense, the development of defense policy has evolved into a complex process. This course will explore the various dimensions of defense policy to include political factors, major actors, the processes by which defense policy is made, the challenges of managing the defense establishment, and debates about the future roles and missions for the military. The approach to this course will be combination of lecture and discussion with emphasis on the latter. The course will cover some theoretical concepts about defense policy and analysis but wherever possible we will discuss defense policy in practical terms based on recent developments. We will begin our exploration by examining the challenge of developing strategy, the nature of civil-military relations, and then proceed to a discussion of various actors and their roles in the defense policy process. We will also discuss budgetary and weapons acquisition issues as well as the evolution of warfare.


 

IAFF 6162 Security Policy Analysis

Policies are decisions made concerning the priorities and values of governments and organizations and the resources that they will devote to achieving or protecting them. Every policy decision involves a cost-benefit trade-off because alternative courses of action will not be pursued and other interests may be sacrificed. When security decisions are at stake, the consequences can be particularly significant. Policy analysts and policymakers must therefore be able to identify relevant information and use appropriate heuristics to process it. This course surveys key components of security policy and how decisions about them are made, using case studies to engage experience of decision processes.


 

IAFF 6163 Transnational Security

This course focuses on transnational security issues and considers how many of these myriad challenges constitute threats to global peace and security. The combined effects of such transnational security issues as drug, weapons, and human trafficking, piracy, acts of terrorism, infectious diseases, and deliberate environmental destruction, along with such critical enablers as corruption, and money movements, are not strangers on the world stage. What is new is their global reach and destructive potential. As a result, these issues have made policy makers consider different conceptions of security and, at times, to move beyond sole considerations of state sovereignty into the realm of human security.


 

IAFF 6165 Fundamentals of Intelligence

This graduate-level seminar will discuss the basics of intelligence collection, production, and analysis and provide an introduction to the U.S. Intelligence Community (IC), the authorities under which the IC operates, its role in informing U.S. national security and foreign policy, its role in implementing policy decisions, and the formation of policy and laws that guide the IC. The class will examine the IC in the context of historical, current, and expected future scenarios, and will discuss historic and potential future changes in how the IC informs and implements policy, as well as how oversight is conducted. In particular, the class will discuss the expanded role of the IC, both analytically and operationally, in the post-9/11 world, as well as the impact of the Wikileaks, Snowden, and other unauthorized disclosures in recent years.


 

IAFF 6169 Homeland Security

The mission of the course is to develop a better understanding of the present and future direction of the local and international aspects of securing a nation from current and developing threats. The course develops an understanding of operational, diplomatic, and technical policy making that includes the workings of international organizations and groups such as the United Nations, the European Union, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization as well as such efforts as the Proliferation Security Initiative and other arms control and weapons control agreements, treaties and organizations. At the national level the course will address securing national borders, countering illicit trafficking in weapons, precursors and people who may constitute a threat, and developing technologies to protect citizens and using intelligence and law enforcement. 


 

IAFF 6171 Intro to Conflict Resolution

This course provides students with an introduction to the field of conflict analysis and resolution. It is intended to provide a solid foundation for further inquiry and application. The course will introduce students to the major concepts and issues currently animating the field, explore the main strategies for responding to conflicts, and help them recognize and critique the assumptions upon which these strategies rest. This course considers the “upper end” of the conflict spectrum, focusing on inter-state disputes, contemporary civil wars, complex political emergencies and other forms of organized violence. At the end of the course students should be acquainted with the nature of conflict resolution as a distinct theoretical and applied field of study and have some understanding of current thinking about major approaches to war prevention, mitigation, settlement, and post-war reconstruction projects. It will be useful for anyone with an interest in conflict resolution and management, including professionals in the fields of diplomacy, journalism, development assistance, humanitarian aid or international peacekeeping who wish to develop their knowledge of this important area.


 

IAFF 6173 Security and Development

This course aims to consider the relationship between security and development across a number of issue areas. Its objective is to enable you to create your own ‘map’ of the relationship and help you to understand some of the connections and disconnections between the two fields.  The course will also allow you to deepen your understanding of one developing country and to demonstrate that knowledge through a range of products. The existence of this course reflects the fact that there is growing interest from the security field in issues that have traditionally been the purview of development. This seminar course looks at armed conflict and failed states, but it seeks to look beyond these issues as well to areas such as demography, the environment, urbanization, and trade, to see how the development-security relationship looks in these issue areas.


 

IAFF 6186 Transitional Justice

Since the end of the Cold War, peacebuilding interventions have increasingly implemented Transitional Justice (TJ) initiatives. TJ comprises a dynamic, multidisciplinary set of procedures adapted to societies that are in the process of transforming themselves following a period of pervasive human rights abuses due to conflict or dictatorship. While TJ definitions vary, they all capture the range of political, legal and moral dilemmas expected in these transitions. The purpose of this course is to allow student to weigh the relative theoretical merits of some of the Transitional Justice components -- including its most iconic which are trials and truth commissions – in the context of actual implementations within various countries that have experienced large-scale violations of human rights. Case studies are chosen from various continents: specifically Africa (South Africa and Rwanda), South America (Argentina and Colombia) and Europe (Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Czech and Slovakian Republics).


 

IAFF 6186 US National Security

This course examines the problems and issues confronting American national security policymakers using a combination of empirical information and conceptual analysis. The course content includes conceptual definitions of national security, policymaking processes and debates, national security institutions and organizations, relationships between foreign, economic and defense policy, and civil-military relations. The course presumes familiarity with American politics and U.S. history and encourages students to keep up on relevant world events by reading legitimate news sources. At the end of the semester, students should be able to critically engage, understand, articulate and explain ideas and arguments about the U.S. national security process and the complexity of American strategic interests and decision-making processes.


 

IAFF 6186 Russia and International Security

Russia’s “hybrid warfare” has become one of the most effective military strategies in recent history. Russia’s blend of offensive cyber intrusions, information warfare, covert actions, special operations forces, and traditional Soviet-era combat tactics has the world on its heels. This seminar will teach students how Russia’s security apparatus executes disinformation campaigns, political sabotage, election disruption, government subterfuge, artificial intelligence “bots” in social media, computational propaganda, and new technologies to dominate conventional battlefields. Other topics include: Pre-Soviet and Soviet military history; Russian foreign policy and grand strategy; NATO enlargement; Russian military interventions in Chechnya, Georgia, and Syria; the Ukraine/Crimean crisis and aftermath, energy security; cyber warfare and espionage; status of new Russian defense systems and military capabilities; post-Soviet States’ security and Eurasian conflicts; threats from Eurasian transnational crime; nuclear strategy, arms control, and missile defense; and whether Russia and China are allies or rivals.


 

IAFF 6186 Political Risk Analysis

The political risk analysis (PRA) graduate course will examine frameworks and methodologies that measure and mitigate political risk in a range of environments at the macro (national and international) and at the micro (local and regional) levels. Approaches will combine research from the international relations and political risk areas together with risk analysis derived from psychology to provide students with an array of approaches to understand the critical aspects of evaluating risks. Emphasis is placed on the interchangeable connection between theory, research and practice, as well as the integration of various approaches towards political risk analysis in an organized framework. Political risk analysis is a multidisciplinary field of study which analyzes, measures, manages and mitigates the impact of political risk to foreign and domestic businesses and investments, organizations, and individuals. Political risk emanates from the (in) actions or reactions of stakeholders within a political system to events.


 

IAFF 6186 Illicit Finance & Security

Transnational illicit non-state actors, corrupt state officials, and governments conducting illicit activity all exploit the international financial system to move and hide funds, raise revenue, or procure and pay for goods. The illicit dimension of the globalization of finance has sparked states and international organizations to develop systemic regulatory frameworks and expand and refine the use of targeted sanctions. This course will examine the operations, mechanisms, and vulnerabilities of illicit financial networks and U.S. and multilateral efforts to counter them, highlighting the key role of the private sector in contributing to the success or failure of financial measures. The course will also examine the use of finance as a foreign policy tool in support of security interests such as resolving conflict or influencing decision making.


 

IAFF 6186 The Chinese Military

This course focuses on the military component of China's comprehensive national power, the Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLA). We begin with an overview of Chinese national security objectives, the role of military forces   in securing those objectives, the missions Chinese leaders assign the PLA, and the military operational capabilities Chinese leaders view as necessary to accomplish those missions. Next we take a quick tour of the history of the PLA, with emphasis on the decades since the start of China’s reform era in 1979 and the ongoing effort to generate military capabilities commensurate with China’s ambitions as a rising global power. We then examine the PLA in more detail, including organization, force structure, operational capabilities, specific missions, modernization objectives, the PLA’s role in national security policy-making, and relations between military officers and civilian authorities. We will take a brief look at the other components of China’s armed forces and security services, and close with an examination of alternative futures for Chinese military power.


 

IAFF 6186 Strategic Planning for the 21st Century

This course aims to consider the importance of US government strategic national security planning, including having a grand national strategy and strategic planning that flows from it, and to provide background and analytical skills on process and content. We will consider strategic planning from a conceptual and practical   point of view. The course will offer a variety of possible alternatives for grand national strategy in the early 21st century, providing different lenses through which to view strategic planning and the choices that ensue. Historical and current situations will add to the richness of reading and discussion about strategic planning. We will also compare government strategic planning with practices in the wider business environment.


 

IAFF 6186 US National Security

This course examines the problems and issues confronting American national security policymakers using a combination of empirical information and conceptual analysis. The course content includes conceptual definitions of national security, policymaking processes and debates, national security institutions and organizations, relationships between foreign, economic and defense policy, and civil-military relations. The course presumes familiarity with American politics and U.S. history and encourages students to keep up on relevant world events by reading legitimate news sources. At the end of the semester, students should be able to critically engage, understand, articulate and explain ideas and arguments about the U.S. national security process and the complexity of American strategic interests and decision-making processes.


 

IAFF 6186 Countering Violent Extremism

This course focuses on government and non-government efforts to prevent and counter violent extremism. It provides students with an introduction to the nascent academic literature to chart the evolution of CVE over the past decade or so. It also offers an opportunity to critically examine and discuss domestic and international policies and programs that aim to prevent and counter violent extremism. The course will be useful for anyone with an interest in counterterrorism, preventing violent conflict as well as a wide array of disciplines and issues including diplomacy, development assistance, criminology, psychology, sociology and political science. The course will connect theory to practice through discussion, research and case study reviews of real events.


 

IAFF 6186 Counter-Terrorism

This course will focus on the broad range of responses to terrorism by governments, particularly in the area of policy and strategy.  It includes a pragmatic component of case studies and hypotheticals to understand the "Counterterrorism (C/T) toolbox".  The course is divided into several sections designed to delineate between individual and tactical responses to terrorism and broader strategies.  These will include an examination of the use of drones (targeted killings), the use of intelligence in C/T efforts, US C/T strategy since 9/11,  the impact of C/T on the law, the use of diplomacy and foreign aid,  and C/T policies practiced by other governments, including France.  Additionally, we will look at the most recent terrorist events to determine the applicability of existing strategies or the need to "retool" to adapt to agile terrorist threats.


 

IAFF 6186 Stabilization & Peacebuilding

The classic interstate conflicts of the past have been largely replaced by intra-state and regional conflicts involving both state and non-state actors. States and regions beset by political and economic instability provide fertile ground for nationalist, sectarian and ethnic conflict, and terrorism and organized criminal activities. In addition, the inability of many of these fragile and weak states to confront natural and man-made disasters, the effects of climate change, pandemic disease and worldwide economic shocks adds further stresses that can exacerbate conflict. This course will examine the lessons from these missions covering general principles and approaches that can be applied for stabilization and peacebuilding, required resources, the structures that have been organized to mount such operations, the gaps that remain, and the knowledge and skills the new peacebuilder needs to operate in these environments.


 

IAFF 6186 Nuclear Strategy

A quarter century after nuclear weapons receded into the background of international politics, debates about nuclear strategy have returned. This course provides an advanced survey of nuclear deterrence theory and historical practice, beginning with basics of nuclear weapons design, strategy, historical case studies of Cold War policy, and nuclear ethics. The latter half of the class examines current nuclear force structure and posture, as well as contemporary debates about U.S. nuclear force structure requirements and modernization, counterforce planning, arms control, and the deterrence relationships with Russia, China, and North Korea. Because the course covers academic theory, primary policy documents, and historical descriptions of case studies, the requirements for reading and class participation are high.


 

IAFF 6186 Military Power & Effectiveness

This course explores what makes the militaries of some states highly proficient fighting machines, whereas others seemingly cannot execute the simplest tasks. Although the effectiveness of navies and air forces could also be examined, the focus of this class (following the bulk of the literature) is on ground forces. We begin by looking at the various ways military effectiveness has been defined in the existing literature, and the different levels of analysis that are used to examine effectiveness. The goal in this section of the course is to understand and criticize how scholars of military effectiveness measure the concept. Section II of the course assesses the theoretical literature, starting with realist theories of preponderance and technology, but proceeding quickly to non-material factors such as strategy/force employment, regime type, civil-military relations, military culture, unit and societal cohesion, and identity. The goals of this section of the course are to classify how various works define military effectiveness, specify what levels of analysis they address, and evaluate how well they explain effectiveness in general and in specific cases. In the third section of the course, we examine three case studies in depth: World War I; the German victory in the Battle of France in May/June 1940; and Iraq’s military performance in the Iran-Iraq War and the two Persian Gulf Wars (1991 and 2003). The goals of Section III are first to understand several important historical cases, but more importantly to apply the theories from Section II to explain variation in the effectiveness of the belligerents. Finally, section IV briefly considers effectiveness in unconventional conflicts. The goals of this section are to understand the differences between conventional and unconventional war, the strategies that states and non-state actors have in unconventional wars and their relative effectiveness, and factors that affect the will and cohesion of belligerents in these war


 

IAFF 6186 Security Implications of AI

Big data, machine learning, expert systems, and automated algorithms are increasingly featured in every aspect of our lives – including military applications.  This weekly seminar will examine state-of-the-art technology and consider what the development of artificial intelligence (AI) implies for international peace and security.  First, significant innovations in AI for sensing, pattern recognition, situational awareness, and other intelligence collection or analysis functions will be studied. Advances in AI will then be considered for their impact on battlefield tactics, operational doctrines, rules of engagement, and strategic decision-making processes.  Beyond military conflict, AI technologies will also be assessed for their contribution to systemic (in)stability as well as the growing (in)equality among and within nation states. Finally, this seminar will highlight corporate and financial drivers on the development of dual-use technologies that, along with state-sponsored AI research and development programs, may confer national security advantages in the future.  Prior coursework in cyber security or other technical subjects will prove helpful but is not mandatory.


 

IAFF 6186 Insurgency & Counterinsurgency

This course provides students with an introduction to the nature of insurgency, some key historical examples of how insurgencies were defeated, and analytical frameworks and tools for understanding and countering insurgencies. It is intended to provide a solid foundation for further inquiry into related topics such as irregular warfare, security and development, stabilization and peacebuilding, responses to terrorism, and conflict resolution. The course examines the multi-disciplinary nature of insurgencies, and introduces students to the major concepts and issues of the topic, explores the main types of insurgencies, and analyzes in depth a number of strategic cases of counterinsurgency to help students understand the complexity and the variety of this form of warfare in the modern world. The course provides key frameworks for analysis for the study of insurgency and explores possible solutions to a number of current conflicts.  


 

IAFF 6186 Cyber and Security

The Course will provide an overview of the cyber domain’s impact on international relationships and development of security policies. The domain has generated strategic challenges and opportunities with partners, allies and adversaries. The course will focus on modern cyber events that generated diplomatic, informational, military, and economic reactions by governments, international organizations, and alliances. By the end of the course students should understand current legal and policy frameworks associated with the cyber domain, as well as articulate State’s obligations and responsibilities in response to Cyber events. When presented with a cyber issue, students should be able to provide a framework to discuss national interests and suggest policy responses.


 

IAFF 6186 Challenges and Opportunities for Arms Control of Weapons of Mass Destruction in the 21st Century

For the past decades, states around the globe have been parties to several international treaties that seek to limit the possession and proliferation of chemical, biological and nuclear weapons. These agreements have been generally successful in keeping the number of states acquiring these weapons to a minimum. Most states have not developed such weapons and do not have a desire to do so. However, there have been other challenges to these regimes. They include everything from allegations of noncompliance, new technologies not envisioned when these treaties entered into force, to unilateral actions of withdrawal. These new challenges have created an increased uncertainty in the arms control community about the current and future status of arms control. This course will explore these issues and provide an opportunity for students to engage in a simulation that centers on what the future holds for these important international security issues.


 

IAFF 6186 Cyber Threats & Policy

This course examines current issues in the realm of cybersecurity, focusing on cybersecurity strategy, threats, conflict, and policy. It begins with an understanding of the power inherent in cyberspace and considers the policy issues facing the civilian, military, intelligence and private business sectors in dealing with offensive and defensive cyber activity. Through case studies, it examines previous and ongoing cyber conflicts to understand their impacts on international relations. Students will analyze the roles of several different types of actors in cyber security including states, non-state actors such as criminal and terror groups, and private sector responses. This course will also analyze cyber deterrence and the unique aspects of offensive and defensive cyber activities by all cyber actors. Technical background is not required and basic aspects of cyber operations will be discussed and demonstrated as part of the introductory class sessions.


 

IAFF 6186 U.S. Grand Strategy 

This course examines U.S. grand strategy, meaning the politico-military continuum of means and ends that the state employs to achieve security. The course first analyzes the concept of grand strategy: what it means, how it’s achieved and when it fails. The course then turns to causes of grand strategy—the international conditions, technological developments, geographic circumstances, domestic actors and ideological beliefs that shape strategic options. Finally, to make these concepts more concrete, the course examines U.S. grand strategy at two pivotal points in recent U.S. history: the early Cold War, when the United States introduced nuclear missiles into the military, and today.


 

IAFF 6186 Emerging Threats

This course surveys emerging risks and challenges that threaten human, national and global security. It does so by paying special attention to a range of military and non-military issues where science and technology play a major role. Topics covered include how to think about the concepts of risk and securitization; revolutions in military affairs and hybrid warfare; the challenges of nuclear security and terrorism; conflict in cyberspace; the uses and consequences of robotics, drones and autonomous weapons systems; military developments in biotechnology; artificial intelligence; as well as non-military issues related to demography, urbanization, public health, the environment, and outer space. For each issue, the course examines the politics of scientific and technological evolution by identifying the key drivers of change; the nature of threats at the local, national, and global levels; and how existing security policies should be reformed in response. A technical background is not required but will enhance one’s understanding.


 

IAFF 6186 Terrorism Today

This course will examine the fundamentals of understanding the threat posed by terrorism, the basics of counterterrorism, and look at several key issues important to the study of terrorism. The approach of this course is multi-disciplinary, examining terrorism through the lens of political science, history, law, economics, criminology, and religious studies. The course is designed to provide a basis for understanding the phenomenon of terrorism and to set it into an appropriate context in relation to other critical issues facing a globalized society. 


 

IAFF 6198 Econometrics for International Affairs

This course will teach the skills needed to understand and implement many advanced quantitative methods commonly used in the social sciences. The course begins with a brief review of topics covered in the pre-requisite course. Review topics include basic probability, statistics and simple regression analysis (Part I). The course then provides a foundation in multiple regression analysis, the main toolkit used by many empirical professionals (Part II). Afterwards, the course rapidly advances to more complex methods in econometrics and statistics. Advanced topics include observational methods such panel data and instrumental variables (Part III); as well as quasi-experimental and experimental methods (Part IV). This is an applied course; thus, we will spend half of the time learning the theory, and the other half on applications. You will learn how to use the software STATA and SPSS.


 

IAFF 6198 Trade & Development Policy

The aim of this course is to understand why developing countries do not enact growth-promoting trade policies. We examine what trade policy in emerging economies looks like in practice, and how these policies evolve from and affect economic development interests. This course is divided into three parts. The first part (re)introduces basic concepts in development economics and how they shape economic growth, specifically in emerging economies. The second part introduces country case studies – from Africa and South Asia – where we examine existing economic and political structures, as well as the private and public sector trade interests in those regions. The third part will compare those trade interests to actual practice. In short, we will derive ideal economic-growth oriented trade policies for those countries and compare them with what they look like in practice, and finally try to understand the causes and development consequences of the differences.


 

IAFF 6198 Economics of US - China Trade

The U.S. and China are the world’s two largest economies and have had a complex economic relationship based on mutual dependence and competition. This course will provide students with an understanding of core issues underlying this consequential and dynamic relationship, focusing on developments within the Chinese economy that have affected bilateral trade, investment, and competitiveness conditions. Emphasis will be placed on developments that unfolded in the past four decades, starting with the 1978 economic reforms in China and ending with contemporary bilateral trade war conditions. This course will encourage students to craft original positions by applying their course learnings, knowledge of international trade, and research and writing skills to contemporary U.S.-China trade issues. It will also provide students with the opportunity to critically evaluate the literature and policy positions, draft original policy briefings, and debate on issues that are likely to impact future U.S.-China trade conditions.  


 

IAFF 6198 Financial Accounting

The role of accounting in decisions of management and external parties. Analysis and interpretation of financial statements. Understanding, interpretation, and implementation of financial accounting and systems of control. Evaluation of the effects of alternative financial reporting decisions on reported financial position. Reporting differences across geographies. International Tax considerations.


 

IAFF 6199 ITIP Capstone 


 

IAFF 6208 Communication in Modern Diplomacy 

This course examines the expanding public dimension of modern diplomacy.  We will explore how diplomats and political leaders communicate in a world of rapid globalization, new diplomatic actors, complex policy issues, digital technologies, increased risk, and uncertain boundaries between foreign and domestic.  This seminar is designed to serve the interdisciplinary interests of students in global communication, international relations, and media studies.


 

IAFF 6211 MIPP Leadership Practicum

The MIPP seminar will focus on major issues in international affairs confronting policymakers in the United States and around the world, and it will explore the evolving nature of international leadership in the twenty-first century. We will examine the diverse ways in which power is exercised on the international stage not only by large organizations such as nation states and transnational corporations, but also by “micro-powers” including activists, insurgents, and entrepreneurs who are shaking up the global order. Through discussions with academic and policy experts, the seminar intends to integrate insights from the participants’ other coursework as well as the participants’ own diverse experience and knowledge. This course intended for MIPP students only.


 

IAFF 6222 International Security Politics 

This course is an introduction to the dynamic and deeply important field of international security.  The purpose is to provide students with an overview of the theoretical and policy debates in the field of international security. During the course we will examine a variety of contemporary security issues to gain an understanding of these threats and their impact on international security in the 21st century.  This course begins with an overview of key concepts, theories, and approaches in the field of international security. It then examines inter-state, intra-state, and transnational security problems, with the understanding that many security problems cut across these categories. Analysis of important security topics (causes of war, great-power relations, weapons of mass destruction, arms racing and arms control, crisis management, civil wars, insurgency, terrorism, and cyber security, among others) is combined with a review of regional developments.  The final section of the course examines non-military issues (poverty, health, population movements, organized crime, and globalization for example) that have major security implications, as well as the role of international organizations in international security. The course concludes with a look to the future. 


 

IAFF 6222 Civil Military Relations

The study of civil-military relations examines the relationship and interaction of the government, military and the citizenry – all of whom are crucial players in the shaping of national security policy. However, each of these institutions has its own priorities, values and purposes, yet they all must find ways to cooperate in order to protect the country’s interests, both domestically and abroad.  Moreover, each carries its own unique source of power which demands a careful balancing at the risk of subverting one of the others. This course will examine a broad range of topics regarding civil military relations to include civil-military theory, practice (both in western and non-western societies) and various socio-political issues that influence civil-military relations in the 21stcentury (mass media, contractors and the “civ-mil gap”).  The course will also explore recent case studies (Iraq and Afghanistan) to analyze how all the major players in the civil-military relations dynamic have functioned in two major applications of military force. Overall, this course will help inform the statesman, professional military officer and citizen in creating a better understanding of his/her role in relation to their government and society in the policy making process.


 

IAFF 6222 Leadership Capstone

This courses intended for MIPP students only.


 

IAFF 6222 Cyber Security

This course will provide an overview of current issues in the realm of cybersecurity, focusing on cybersecurity strategy, thretas, conflict and policy. We will begin with an understanding of the power inherent in cyberspace and consider the policy issues facing the civilian, military, intelligence and private business sectors in dealing with offensive and defensive cyber activity. Through the use of case studies, we will examine previous and ongoing cyber conflicts to understand their impacts on international relations. We will analyze the roles of several different types of actors in cybersecurity including state actors, non-state actors such as criminal and terror groups and private sector responses. This course will also examine the issue of cyber deterrence, and the unique aspects of offensive and defensive cyber activities by all cyber actors. Technical background is not required and basic aspects of cyber operations will be discussed in the introductory class sessions.


 

IAFF 6222 International Development Policy

This course examines the scope and nature of international development assistance and the challenges currently facing development agencies. It surveys development theory since Bretton Woods and the Marshall Plan and considers how changes have been reflected in the operational strategies of leading bilateral and multilateral donors. Then the focus of the course will shift to the methods and tools that characterize the work of principal donors, from needs assessment and project design to evaluation. The effectiveness of development assistance will be an important theme of this course, in particular how mixed results have brought methods and concepts into question and how agencies are responding to this challenge.


 

IAFF 6302 Taiwan: International Development and Foreign Policy

China’s rise, U.S. engagement in Asia, and democratic change in Taiwan have made Taiwan a focal point of contemporary U.S. and international policy consideration. More than a decade of repeated crises in cross strait relations was followed by dramatic improvement 2008-2016, which stalled in the face of domestic opposition in Taiwan and firm resolve in Beijing. This course focuses on political, economic, social, and intellectual trends on Taiwan, how they affect Taiwan's standing in the triangular Taiwan-China-U.S. relationship, and what this means for China, the United States, and international affairs. The first part of the course surveys Taiwan's history with an emphasis on political, economic, social and cultural trends since World War II. The course then discusses the evolution of Taiwan's role in world affairs, with special emphasis on the triangular relationship among Taiwan, the People’s Republic of China (PRC), and the United States.  


 

IAFF 6308 International Relations of South Asia

India’s rise and South Asia’s transformation into a globalizing and dynamic region is occurring alongside strong pressures and threats from cross-border identity conflicts, terrorism, nuclear weapons and problematic domestic governance structures. Against this mixed context, this course will analytically consider the national security calculations and foreign policy perspectives of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Afghanistan, and their impact regionally and beyond, including increasing uncertainty in India-China relations and growing competition in the Indian Ocean. The course will look closely at insecurities arising from ethnic conflict, contested boundaries, nuclear weapons proliferation, weak internal socio-political structures, resource dependence and vulnerability and state ambitions. Special attention will be given to the shifting Asian balance of power, stretching from Central Asia and Iran to East Asia, in which India and China are critical players. 


 

IAFF 6318 The Political Economy of China, India, and Beyond

Comparative analysis of how development problems have been defined from both political and economic perspectives and the solutions proposed by outsiders and insiders. Provides an historical foundation for understanding how the concept of development has evolved in the large economies of East and South Asia as well as in the rising economies of Southeast Asia. Includes some comparisons with the Middle East and Africa.


 

IAFF 6318 Chinese Business Law

China has become a major trading partner of the United States and a major destination for foreign direct investment. While the same could be said of Canada, the Latter’s legal system can be readily understood by an American-trained lawyer. This is not true for China, the legal system of which is profoundly different from that of the US and other Western countries in some of its most basic assumptions as well, of course, as in the content of many of its substantive rules. Thus, if we measure the need to study a foreign country’s legal system by multiplying its economic importance by the degree to which its legal system is different from our own, China presents a compelling case. Traditionally, courses like this have been named, and taught, as “Legal Aspects of Doing Business With China” or “Chinese Foreign Trade and Investment Law.” I have deliberately chose a different name and broader coverage because I believe that the long-standing barriers between domestic and foreign business activities are breaking down, and that understanding garden -variety Chines business law - company law and contract law, to name two examples - will be increasingly important. Thus, while the course will be focused mainly on what lawyers with a China practice would need to know, it will also cover things they may not need to know much about now, but probably will in the future. Non-law school students may be eligible to take this class but must first speak with the instructor and obtain instructor permission.


 

IAFF 6318 Politics of the Past in Korea

This course examines social development on the Korean peninsula from the prehistory to the Later Silla Period (the 10th century AD) in order to look closely at how the remote past shapes notions of Korean identity today and how it has been understood by various intellectual and political groups in modern times. Topics include the problems of assigning ethnicity to ancient cultures, the relationship between archaeology and texts, the politicization and presentation of history, and the impact of contact, ideology, and warfare in the development of complex polities. Students will gain firsthand experience in working with primary sources and archaeological data as well as complete a substantial research project of their own choosing


 

IAFF 6318 Current Issues in East Asia

This course will focus on several interlinked current major issues in East Asia, which due to their contingent nature are difficult to incorporate into regular curricular offerings. The course will examine how US policy towards four key players in the region, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan and China, has evolved during  the past 20-some years, and how interactions with the other players is affecting these policies. US policymakers responsible for these countries and diplomats from these countries will be invited as guest speakers to the class in order to elaborate on a current issue facing their respective bureaus. Students will then be asked to develop responses to these requests, and present approaches to resolve these issues through their papers and class presentations. The course will examine the policy questions against the background of some of the overarching themes. These often don’t drive the debates on the issues of the day, but are important in the understanding of the background and the broader perspective.  1) Taiwan’s transition to democracy and its implications for today. 2) Japan’s rise as a responsible stakeholder, and its uneasy historical relations with some of its neighbors. 3) The tension between South Korea’s emergence as a regional power and its quest for unification. 4) China’s rise and its implications for the East Asia region as a whole. 


 

IAFF 6338 Ukraine & Georgia between Russia & the West

The current Russo‐Ukrainian crisis has regional and global ramifications, as did the 2008 Russo‐Georgian War. The course examines these conflicts and places them in the wider context of Russian‐Western relations, relations between Russia and its neighbors, and the relations between the West and Ukraine and Georgia. The policies of the relevant parties are analyzed against the backdrop of processes and issues such as NATO and EU enlargement, the “post‐Soviet” countries’ aspirations to define their national identities and roles in a wider European security order, Russia’s changing foreign policy, energy security, and domestic politics. The course combines a historical perspective with application of International Relations theory on issues such as national security decision making.


 

IAFF 6338 Social Movements in Central Asia

This course utilizes social movement political process theory (PPT) to explore social movements in Central Asia. Protesters in Kazakhstan continue to mobilize and feminist activism in Kyrgyzstan is thriving. While these are visible examples of social movements, this course invites students ask, what is a social movement? How do social movements evolve? When do they begin and when do they end? Student will engage in understanding types of social movements, what motivates people to join them, and why movements fail or succeed. Course materials and discussions examine political opportunity structures, communities of activism, and whether social movements in Central Asia are unique within the PPT framework. By the end of the course, students will have an understanding of PPT theory and social movements Central Asia.


 

IAFF 6338 Politics of Russia 

This course examines the driving forces that have shaped Russian politics and civil society. Students will learn about the nature of Russia’s political system, the points of view of leading Russian and Western analysts of Russian politics. Beginning with the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the course proceeds to explore the development of contemporary Russia as it unfolds in the current media. We will investigate the role of political culture and civil society in regime transitions, analyze the significance of energy policy, economic foundations of power, informal practices regional politics, nationalism, religion, conflict areas, and popular mobilization, as well as the influence of networks and corruption.


 

IAFF 6339 EES Capstone


 

IAFF 6358 OAS & the Inter-American System

The objective of the course is to engage students in developing a practical understanding on how the inter-American system and the Organization of the American States (OAS) have contributed to construct common political agendas in the Americas in different historical periods. We will examine how the evolution of the OAS, after the end of the cold war, has modeled a region that, at least according to the inter-American principles and regional agreements, has committed itself to respect and promote representative democracy, rule of law, and the fundamental human rights. This course will also cover the structure and functions of the OAS with a focus on political issues such as: democracy, rule of law, human rights and the fight against corruption. We will also study the Summits of the Americas process, a periodical gathering of the Heads of State and Government of North, South, Central America and the Caribbean, which has revitalized inter-American relations since 1994. Students will gain knowledge of the complexities of regional relations, and should be able to acquire a more critical and nuanced comprehension of the possibilities and limitations of the OAS as the principal political forum of the Americas.


 

IAFF 6358 Contemporary Issues of US-Mexico Relations

This course examines the current drivers of the US-Mexico relationship, and uses concrete policy issues and recent  junctures of the relationship to explore and understand both the policy and decision-making processes as well as the outcomes. It has an academic mooring but provides potential future practitioners–whether in government, the private sector or civil  society-with a toolkit to comprehend how decision-making affecting ties between both nations is implemented. It will provide students with a holistic understanding of the multifaceted agenda that makes this relationship so unique for US foreign and domestic policy (trade and the economy, national security and law-enforcement, energy, migrant flows, border infrastructure, sustainability and water  resources, demographics, public diplomacy and Soft Power) and that underpins this singular bilateral relationship.The course will also place the US-Mexico relationship in a larger geostrategic context - North American, hemispheric and global. This is not a "history of US-Mexico relations" course, though some readings on key defining moments will be required for context. The course will entail issue-driven policy simulation exercises throughout the semester in order to ensure that students understand both the issues but also the praxis of this vastly complex relationship.


 

IAFF 6358 Economic and Social Development of Latin America

This course takes a historical and comparative view to the economic, social and institutional evolution of Lain America and the Caribbean (LAC), and discusses the main interpretations about its past history, current conditions, and future scenarios, in the context of global economic and geopolitical changes and in comparison to other developing regions. Then it moves to the discussion of a variety of current public policies.The course will briefly discuss the colonial roots and independence, the period of growth in the second half of the 19th century, and the difficult decades of the first half of the 20th century marked by two world wars and the Great Depression. The main focus however, will be on the post WWII period, going through the period of import substitution and the Alliance for Progress, the shocks of the 1970s, the debt crisis of the 1980s, the period that started in the 1990s with a greater market orientation and democratic institutions, and the new and uncertain phase that opened after the financial crisis of 2009. That chronological discussion will take up the first part of the course. In the second half, the analysis will focus on current approaches and debates on different public policies related to macroeconomic, productive, social, and institutional aspects. This section of the course will discuss policies related to fiscal, monetary, financial, exchange rate, trade, labor, agriculture, industry, education, technology, infrastructure, health and nutrition, social protection, environmental issues, and democtratic governance.


 

IAFF 6358 Democracy Under Siege in Latin America

Is democracy under siege again? Support for democracy is at its lowest level since surveys began some thirty years ago. Public disenchantment is widespread. The blue tide reached Brazil and Chile but the pink one returned to Argentina and landed in Mexico in a seemingly unending political volatility.  The crises in Peru, Ecuador, Chile, Honduras and Guatemala lead observers to fear a third “counter-wave” to democracy. Authoritarian regimes remain entrenched in Venezuela and Nicaragua. Furthermore, the insertion of the region in the world has changed dramatically. China especially, but Russia too, are playing roles unseen before. The geo-economics-thus-geopolitics paradigm seems to be reversing back to the geopolitics-thus-geo economics. What exactly and is happening and why? What does it all mean? What are the implications for the region and the world? This class will enable students to develop a theoretically informed understanding of this reality and the factors that explain it as well as to foresee the likely trends for the future. 


 

IAFF 6358 International Relations of Latin America

The United States has been the preponderant power in the hemisphere since the early twentieth century. Prior to the midterm, we explore U.S. policies toward the region during the twentieth century and explanations for these policies.  In particular, during the Cold War, the U.S. and the USSR were considered the world’s two super powers and the U.S. was concerned about the threats presented by the USSR in Latin America; in most scholars’ views, however, the U.S. exaggerated the threats. We assess to what extent U.S. policies indeed reflected security threats by the USSR and to what extent economic concerns, democracy concerns, and/or features of the U.S. policy-making process. After the midterm, we explore the evolution of the power configuration in the hemisphere in the 2000s. Is the hemisphere unipolar?  Are China and Latin American “middle powers” rising? If so, what kind of a challenge does China present and how does its role compare to the USSR’s during the Cold War? And, if so, what does the increase in China’s and Latin American countries’ power mean for U.S. interests in the region? Is the U.S. achieving its goals on key issues of the hemispheric agenda, in particular the “war on drugs” and democratization?


 

IAFF 6359 LAHSP Capstone


 

IAFF 6378 Militaries & Politics in the Middle East

Militaries play an important, even outsized role in the politics of a variety of Middle Eastern countries.  Egypt, Algeria, Syria, Turkey, and Israel all have robust military establishments that have had a profound influence on the political trajectory of these states. Yet, there are significant differences as to the degree and type of influence played in each case. Although the military was once an important unit of analysis in the study of Middle Eastern polities, this  topic fell out of favor in the 1970s along with the modernization and transitology paradigms. Since the uprisings that rocked the Arab world began in late 2010, there has been new scholarly and policy interest in civil-military relations in the region. This purpose of this course is to examine the nature of civil-military relations in the Middle East in an effort to understand: 1) the connection between militaries and the development of regimes in the region; 2) the role militaries have played in the durability of Middle Eastern political  systems; and 3) how militaries are responding to public demands for change throughout the Arab world.


 

IAFF 6378 Lebanon & Syria

This course explores the complicated link between Syria and Lebanon – from the time these territories were part of the Ottoman Empire until the present. In the process, the course focuses on the different political and economic trajectories the two states followed upon gaining independence from France; the domestic and external sources of their respective foreign policies; Lebanon’s slide towards civil war in 1975 and Syria’s intervention to end it; the politics of Syria’s domination of Lebanon and, ultimately, Syria’s withdrawal from the latter; and, finally, the civil war in Syria and its impact on Lebanon.

 

IAFF 6378 State and Society in Egypt

This is a short-term abroad course that will focus on state institutions in Egypt and their engagement with Egyptian society. There will be a special focus on religious and legal institutions since those are fairly accessible but often less understood; they also fall within the expertise of the instructors. In looking at Egyptian legal institutions, the course will examine the role played by those institutions in shaping and being shaped by existing social structures. The course's examination of religious institutions in Egypt will offer insight into their role in Egyptian society and the relationship among legal, religious, and political structures in Egypt. This understanding will be bolstered by a general overview of the development of Islamic law from its classical formulations to the present day. The course will be conducted jointly with a graduate political science course at the American University in Cairo (AUC) taught by Professor Nesrine Badawi, an AUC faculty member. AUC and GW students will complete class assignments and be graded by their home institution instructor (Brown for GW; Badawi for AUC) but all class sessions and visits will be conducted jointly.


 

IAFF 6378 Oil: Industry, Economy, Society

Petroleum is one of the fastest-growing industries in the USA, and affects the fortunes of companies and nations. Most of the largest firms in the world are in petroleum.  This course takes a multidisciplinary approach (primarily political economy and management) to oil and its effects on business, nation-states, and the world economy. The first half of the course adopts a top-down viewpoint, examining the global oil environment. The second half is more bottom-up, using cases to grapple with industry issues.  The course is conducted in a mixture of seminar and lecture formats. A group proposal, paper, and presentation, as well as active class participation are expected, and constitute over half the assessment.


 

IAFF 6378 Arabic for International Affairs

This course is designed to enable students of international affairs to pursue successful careers in the Foreign Service, government, private or international agencies, as well as in fields such as politics, economics, media, business and finance. The course is designed to help students develop their communicative abilities and expand knowledge about Arabic for international affairs, customs, traditions and ways of life, to the extent that they will be able to perform tasks that a native speaker carries out in formal and informal situations. This course is for students at the high-Intermediate level and focuses on conversation skills, speaking, listening, writing, reading comprehension, continued vocabulary acquisition and terminology related to international affairs. 


 

IAFF 6378 State, Identity and Foreign Policy in the Middle East 

The State, for a long time, has been regarded as the unit of analysis in International Relations and Foreign Policy. However, with the continuous changes and fragility of certain States in the MENA region, it’s important to continuously revisit this premise and address the growing influence of identities (religious, ethnic, or sectarian) on the working of the State and its foreign policy tools. Through this seminar, students will be exposed to the different relevant theories and frameworks tackling foreign policy making in the Middle East. In addition, select case studies will be discussed but students are encouraged to bring other cases or issues to the discussion as well.


 

IAFF 6378 Refugees & Displaced People in Middle East

The UNHCR Refugee Agency estimates that there is nearly 22.5 million refugees in the world and 55% of them come from Africa and the Middle East. Also, there are now twice as many internally displaced people (IDPs) as there are refugees. Migration and displacement are far more complex and within this context, the course will explore factors underlying migration of peoples, the current trends and patterns of human movements in the greater context of global migrations, and in view of the influences of on-going conflicts, violene, and environmental disasters to list just few. The course will focus on the refugee and the IDP communities in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Through case studies, analysis and reflection, the course will engage students in examining the sheer scope of the crisis, analyzing the causes and consequences of displacement, the roots and underlying issues of injustice that impact refugee and IDP communities including vulnerable populations. In addition to investigating the profound implications when it comes to preventing, responding to and resolving displacement; and how the steady increase in displaced populations influence regional and world politics, and how resettlement became a contentious debate among the regional and international community alike. Students will also explore the general background on UN and other international agencies and organizations, regional human rights bodies, and in-country agencies involved with IDPs and refugees in light of the legal frameworks and policies that are designed to protect refugee and IDP populations.


 

IAFF 6379 Middle East Studies Capstone 

This course intended for MES graduate students only.


 

IAFF 6501 Quantitative Analysis International Affairs Practicum

This course is designed to provide a strong analytical foundation in elementary statistical reasoning and techniques, and the skills necessary to understand, evaluate, and critic, claims, and conventional wisdom and popular opinion. Topics include descriptive statistics; sampling and statistical inference; testing for differences between means; techniques for analyzing categorical data; correlation, and measures of association; summarizing and presenting statistical results; and some of the fundamental issues of research study design. The course is rigorous, but does not require an advanced mathematic background. Class time will be a mix of lecture, discussion, and hands-on computer work. 


 

IAFF 6502 Cross Cultural Communications

The ability to communicate effectively and sensitively across cultures has become both more critical and more difficult in today’s global environment. The focus of the course will be development of cross-cultural communications/awareness, management, and negotiation skills. National, regional and universal levels of culture and communications will be explored. Course methodologies will include case studies, videos, simulation, and assessment instruments relative to communicating and working in multicultural settings. The course also uses a comparativist approach to flesh out the significance and implications of cultural underpinnings, factors, and variables necessary for successful communication between cultures and individuals in an increasingly globalized world.


 

IAFF 6502 Writing for IA Professional

Professionals who are able to write well has a competitive advantage in their careers. They are able to clearly and quickly express their views and conclusions in written communications. Strong writing skills also sharpen organization and communication skills at all levels. The best strategic thinkers often are superior writers because of their ability to analyze and synthesize complex concepts and explain them in simple terms. Whether a student’s future is in policy development, public speaking, corporate management, law, or academia, this course provides tools to think through written communications and produce effective writing.


 

IAFF 6502 Public Speaking

Many aspects of daily life involve public speaking. Whether you are giving a toast at a social event or making a presentation before a professional audience, good public speaking skills are important, and can help you to make the right impression and further your career. This course will provide students the opportunity to learn (1) how to structure and organize a speech, (2) the elements of proper delivery, (3) the various speech types, (4) how to use visual aids, (5) how to encourage audience participation, and (6) how to identify topics. Students will present several speeches on different topics.


 

IAFF 6502 Alternative Analysis: Red Team

Members of both the 9/11 Commission and the WMD Commission expressed concerns that the U.S. intelligence community lacks imagination, does not "think outside the box," or challenge prevailing assumptions when analyzing threats to national security. Alternative analysis—often referred to as "red cell" or "red team”—uses various analytical methodologies to provide a more complete picture of issues than traditional analysis alone. Students will also be introduced to various methods or war gaming formats in which red teaming is applied. Students will be required to apply a variety of techniques used in red teaming and participate in a multi-sided war game.


 

IAFF 6502 Financial Statement Analysis

This course will provide an introduction to the analysis and interpretation of corporate financial statements. Emphasis will be given to placing financial information and its analysis within an actual market context. Students will learn basic financial analysis tools and apply them on real world examples. Special attention will be given to the analysis of multinational corporations and the financial performance of businesses in an international context.


 

IAFF 6502 Research Design for International Affairs

This course introduces students to a step-by-step approach to evaluating, producing and managing policy-relevant research in international affairs. Students learn and practice key skills, such as how to survey existing knowledge, formulate research questions, choose analytical methods, and organize research plans to produce rigorous and persuasive analysis. When deployed as part of a systematic approach, these skills help students produce quality papers and complete superior capstone projects or theses. By the end of the course, students will demonstrate a grasp of the research process by delivering the introduction to a research paper or proposal for a research project.


 

IAFF 6502 Protocol in Diplomacy & International Business

Students will examine the role and importance of protocol in the conduct of diplomacy, international business dealings, and other transactions involving international and multicultural participants. 


 

IAFF 6502 Formal Briefing

This course explores the why, what, and how of creating and presenting information to an audience. It will start with why briefings are an important mode of expression, and why storytelling is the single most important consideration in conceptual design.


 

IAFF 6502 Restorative Justice

How a society responds to wrongdoing is critical to people’s perceived sense of security, belonging and justice. The state’s legal system plays an important role in establishing the rule of law and maintaining popular confidence in its ability to manage transgressions. However, in many parts of the world as in the U.S., the justice system is not always designed to adequately contribute to healing or peace but instead deepens societal divides and conflict. Restorative justice is an attempt to address some of these gaps.


 

IAFF 6502 Advocating for Women’s Rights

This skills class will equip students with the building blocks for conducting successful advocacy efforts on global women’s issues. It will foster an understanding of different elements of an advocacy campaign, from grassroots mobilization to direct engagement of policymakers through individual, celebrity and coalition advocacy. It will build students’ skills in various tactics such as identifying the elements of “the ask,” crafting successful messages, building and managing coalitions, conducting power analysis, crafting the “elevator pitch,” and tailoring messaging for media. Finally, it will examine successful case studies of gender-responsive foreign policy from the perspective of advocates and policymakers alike.


 

IAFF 6502 Negotiation Skills

This course is designed to enhance the participants’ negotiation and leadership skills for managing differences between individuals and groups. Class members will learn how to handle two and multiparty negotiations, and analyze the importance of empathy and creative option design.  The course will be a blend of skill building exercises and discussions about the behavior of individuals to understand the negotiation dynamics.


 

IAFF 6502 Feminist Research Methodologies for Conflict-Affected Settings

This course is designed to orient students to the ethics and practice of feminist research within conflict-affected contexts. The course will include theoretical and practical elements focused on helping students to develop an intersectional feminist lens tuned into the relationship between power and knowledge production, the ethics of representation, and the challenges of navigating research in settings where individuals have been affected by violence. The overall goal of the course is to equip students will the skills necessary to apply the ethics and considerations of feminist praxis to various professional and academic endeavors. Students will have the opportunity to engage with a variety of participatory research methods from a feminist perspective, including photovoice, Everyday Peace Indicators, narrative, and ethnographic methods. This engagement will take place alongside broader class discussions which will explore how feminist approaches and sensitivities can be integrated into field work across disciplines and epistemologies, and within professional practice.


 

IAFF 6502 Multilateral & Conference Diplomacy

This course seeks to provide students with a foundation of the major rules, norms and principles of conducting and taking part in multilateral and conference diplomacy events and activities. It allows students to acquire the core skills and abilities of participating in complex and often times prolonged negotiations with a view to reaching agreements on global issues of common interest. The class will examine the work and interplay of various actors, Governments, International and non-governmental organizations that use multilateral conferences as a means, and sometimes the only means, to achieve important policy objectives of global significance. We will look into the work of the United Nations, various World Conferences and Summits; and Regional-based multilateral bodies such as the European Union, African Union, Arab League, ASEAN APEC among others, in conducting multilateral diplomacy negotiations to reach an understanding or agreement on specific issue(s) of common interests.


 

IAFF 6502 Writing for International Practitioners

Rapidly changing conditions, complex problems, and unexpected obstacles require national and international security decision-makers to respond in real-time. Their ability to make informed decisions depends on the timely delivery of high-quality written products used to inform and influence their thinking. Your ability to analyze and synthesize complex concepts and explain them in simple terms in the written form are essential to that process. If you are considering a career in national and international security policy, this course will provide you with the tools to produce efficient and effective written communication.  


 

IAFF 6502 STATA: Fundamentals

IAFF 6502 is a four-week Stata introduction course that will cover basics skills for students to get hands on using Stata for data analysis. This course provides a basic introduction to Stata software and its applications on data management, data analysis and econometric modeling.


 

IAFF 6502 International Non-Profit Management

The non-profit sector has grown exponentially in the last few decades – both domestically and internationally - and so have the competing demands to demonstrate data-driven results, raise public awareness and fundraise on multiple platforms. These competing demands require effective management skills to run non-profit organizations and achieve impact. Key skills include defining, understanding and ongoing assessment of an organization’s mission, communication and advocacy strategies, effective programs, development and financial targets, identification of fundraising opportunities and managing a team that may even meet in person regularly. This course will be taught by evaluating how to design a Non-Profit Organizational Capacity Mapping Framework and by discussing Case Studies in class. Prior reading of the Case Studies for each seminar class is required because the case studies will be taught using a Socratic Method with students explaining the Case Studies and Responding to questions by the Lecturer and other students. The themes that will be covered by both the case studies and the Capacity Mapping Framework will include lectures and discussions about Mission; Program/Theory of Change; Evaluation & Log Frames; Fundraising & Communication Strategies; NGO Management in the 21 st Century and Non-Profit Governance.


 

IAFF 6502 Participatory Planning

Participation is a fundamental concept to development. This course aims to build an appreciation of the nuances of participation and to impart specific methods and tools that facilitate participation. The course will cover the principles of participatory learning and action, provide helpful “Do’s” and “Don’t’s” of carrying out participatory activities and processes and touch on the caveats of participatory methods in the development industry.  The tools and methods covered in the course are drawn from community development planning, participatory rural/urban appraisal, participatory monitoring and evaluation, and participatory learning and action.


 

IAFF 6502 Public Opinion/Sentiment Analysis

The goals of the course are to make students conversant in survey research, better consumers of public opinion data and gain the ability to use survey data in their work—all without having to become a statistician! This course will offer specific examples of how public opinion data has been used to inform policymakers. This is followed by a comparison of the validity of traditional survey research methods versus the more newly arrived social media sentiment analysis. It will provide an overview of the different methods of data collection as well as an introduction to sampling and questionnaire design and quality control measures. Students will then be exposed to how data is interpreted and used to form the backbone of pithy and cogent analyses. The course will conclude with an exercise in which students will review a data set and draft a policy memo based on a particular theme.


 

IAFF 6502 Briefing Congress Members

This course will introduce students to the formal and informal rules for engaging Members and congressional staff. It will explore dynamics and power relationships in Member personal offices and committee staffs, as well as define office organizational structures. It will discuss the respective informal characteristics of the House and Senate, and the personalities of each.  This course will provide an overview of the range of outside groups that engage with the Congress and for what reasons. It will discuss how Members and staff deal with each other, how internal coalitions are built, and the when, why and what types of information are valuable to each. This course will delve into bill drafting, support bodies of the Congress, how Members and staff prepare for hearings and the rhythm of hearing dynamics. This course will be comprised of instructor and guest speaker presentations, group discussion, and how to develop and present information for Members and staff. Students will gain a solid understanding of the formal and informal rules that govern Capitol Hill. They will learn more about Congress’ outsized role impacting “Inside the Beltway” activities regarding the executive branch, constituents, associations, lobby and interest groups and foreign governments. Students will gain confidence in who does what on Capitol Hill, the differences between committee and personal office dynamics, and how to engage “the Hill.” Students will develop skills during classroom sessions and outside assignments. Sessions will consist principally of interactive lectures by the instructor and guest speakers, as well as roundtable discussions. Students will alternate role play exercises briefing Members and staff on topics of interest. Through lectures, discussions, briefing memorandum and exercises, students will gain the capability to present information to Members and staff with greater impact.


 

IAFF 6502 Human-Centered Design

This experiential and interactive course exposes students to the tools, tactics, and frameworks used by international innovators, entrepreneurs, and designers to empathize with populations they seek to serve, define problem sets, and come up with innovative solutions to solve the world's toughest problems. I will draw from examples of how human-centered design is being used in South America, Africa, and India to bring women out of poverty, provide livable wages, and combating the AIDS epidemic. Tools gained at this workshop will benefit those with a passion for social change in an international context and/or those at the early stages of exploring their own innovations solutions, ideas, nonprofits, and social enterprises. We encourage participation from individuals that have identified a problem they would like to solve and/or those that have an idea or new program positively impacts committees. No prior experience with human-centered design or design thinking is necessary to attend.


 

IAFF 6503 Analyzing International Economic Data

The course will use trade, investment, and other economic data sources to examine international trade and economic topics including: trade in agricultural products and other goods, U.S. trade in oil, international trade in services, activities of multinational companies, international foreign direct investment, and GDP growth. Students will use economic statistics and tools available on the web or from Gelman’s Online Library. Students will gain hands on experience using merchandise and services trade flows, foreign direct investment stocks and flows, balance of payments data, and foreign exchange rates. The course includes practical instruction on several types of online resources to specify data queries. Students will be asked to download economic statistics and manipulate electronic data in spreadsheets. The course will expose students to sources, terminology, and definitions unique to the analysis of international economic data. Students will be graded based on weekly attendance and class participation, three out-of-class assignments, a take home final exam, and a brief in class presentation that applies the skills learned in class


 

IAFF 6503 Formal Briefing 

This course explores the why, what, and how of creating and presenting information to an audience. It will start with why briefings are an important mode of expression, and why storytelling is the single most important consideration in conceptual design.


 

IAFF 6503 Alternative Analysis: Red Team 

Members of both the 9/11 Commission and the WMD Commission expressed concerns that the U.S. intelligence community lacks imagination, does not "think outside the box," or challenge prevailing assumptions when analyzing threats to national security. Alternative analysis—often referred to as "red cell" or "red team”—uses various analytical methodologies to provide a more complete picture of issues than traditional analysis alone. Students will also be introduced to various methods or war gaming formats in which red teaming is applied. Students will be required to apply a variety of techniques used in red teaming and participate in a multi-sided war game.


 

IAFF 6503 Leadership and Teamwork

This course explores the dynamics of teambuilding, communication, and leadership that will increase managerial effectiveness. Topics include: communication and conflict, decision-making and problem-solving, teams vs. groups, group dynamics, consensus, team building and leadership.  Students participate in experiential exercises that provide them with the opportunity to learn critical skills needed to improve teamwork and be effective organizational members.


 

IAFF 6503 Conflict & Corruption: Resource Curse

This is an advocacy-focused skills class where we use the case study of the "resource curse" as an entry point to learning and practicing how to develop and deliver a policy advocacy strategy. The “resource curse” is a widely accepted phenomenon; countries rich in natural resources are more prone to conflict and corruption than their resource-poor neighbors. This course will first explore the theory behind the “curse”, will examine case studies, and will tackle the policy implications of the resource curse for the US policymaker community. This is a skills course, not an effort to cover the comprehensive scholarship on the resource curse or its economic or national security implications.


 

IAFF 6503 Structured Analytic Techniques

This course introduces students to qualitative structured analytic techniques that they will be able to use across disciplines to help solve analytic problems. This course shows students how to use these techniques to approach analytic challenges and produce useful, insightful analysis. In numerous hands-on exercises, students practice specific skills to help them overcome mindsets, organize information, diagnose problems, explore different ways of thinking, and avoid surprise.


 

IAFF 6503 Negotiation Skills

This course is designed to enhance the participants’ negotiation and leadership skills for managing differences between individuals and groups. Class members will learn how to handle two and multiparty negotiations, and analyze the importance of empathy and creative option design.  The course will be a blend of skill building exercises and discussions about the behavior of individuals to understand the negotiation dynamics.


 

IAFF 6503 Developing Effective Proposals

The course will provide students with the nuts and bolts of developing the effective, winning proposal, including overview and management of the proposal development process, including project design and field assessments, analyzing a procurement opportunity, preparing a technical proposal and budget, developing a monitoring and evaluation plan, and planning project staffing. The course will explore ways to work in partnership with local organizations, stakeholders, and the project’s ultimate beneficiaries. Team work is an essential aspect of developing successful proposals. Practitioners will gain a better understanding of ways to create better development projects, anticipate challenges, work with a variety of stakeholders, and address challenges effectively.


 

IAFF 6503 Analyzing International Economic Data

The course will use trade, investment, and other economic data sources to examine international trade and economic topics including: trade in agricultural products and other goods, U.S. trade in oil, international trade in services, activities of multinational companies, international foreign direct investment, and GDP growth. Students will use economic statistics and tools available on the web or from Gelman’s Online Library.


 

IAFF 6503 Writing for Intelligence Professionals

Writing in the Intelligence Community differs considerably from traditional academic submissions. Especially in the public sector in the early stages of your career, you are “known by how well you write.” What you write also depends in large measure on the type of information you are trying to impart and equally important – your audience. This course will focus on the various types of writing you will likely encounter in the intelligence world. Writing requires practice and this course will involve a series of short written assignments, plus in-class practical exercises covering the types of written products routinely encountered in the intelligence community.


 

IAFF 6503 Communicating Global Issues

Media and communications savvy – knowing how to convey compelling and targeted messages to key US audiences – is key to strengthening America’s leadership in the world. This hands-on communications, media training and message development “PowerTalk” workshop is designed to help students become more effective advocates and spokespeople with the media, policymakers, engaged public and other key audiences. Learn the most effective communications and media techniques, including: preparing a basic communications and advocacy strategy; developing and delivering effective messages; preparing for media interviews and briefings; anticipating and managing difficult questions and situations; using stories, visuals and facts for maximum effect; and avoiding common pitfalls. Students will also explore the basics of how to amplify their message via social media, influential and other best practices.


 

IAFF 6503 Writing for International Policymakers

Clear, concise and persuasive analytic writing is an essential skill for international affairs professionals. Effective analysis for policymakers succinctly assesses matters in ways that provide information, context, and insight and makes useful recommendations. Key characteristics include focus, relevance, brevity, and readability.  This course will involve short written assignments, as well as group discussions and peer critiques, aimed at developing the writing and analytic skills necessary to support, inform, and influence policymakers and implement policy.


 

IAFF 6503 Gender Advisor: Roles & Skills

This course will cover the various roles, responsibilities, and necessary skills of a Gender Advisor in multilateral, bilateral, and international development organizations. The course will provide a comprehensive overview of how the latest tools, resources, and practices should be applied in development work. The course will translate the new and evolving set of policies on gender integration/mainstreaming into meaningful practice to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of institutions and organizations seeking to promote peace, security and development through gender mainstreaming of policies, programs, and projects in developing countries as well as leading organizations to improve their internal gender equality.


 

IAFF 6503 Gender Responsive Budgeting

This 1-credit, innovative and participatory skills class, will introduce graduate students to the process of building gender responsive government budgets, doing gender-responsive sector planning, and integrating gender into development proposals and project budgets in order to support the sector planning. The course will explore how to engage all the necessary stakeholders in order to secure buy-in, the advocacy that must be undertaken, and the process of monitoring budgets once they have been finalized. Students will study proposals, case studies and organizational reports. This course meets on Saturday, April 4 and Sunday, April 5, 2020 from 9-5pm each day.

 

 

IAFF 6503 Mobile Phones for International Development

The mobile phone is rapidly bringing communication to the most remote areas of the world. NGOs, governments and companies alike are beginning to realize the potential of this ubiquitous tool to address a variety of global challenges. This weekend skills course will explore successful applications that facilitate economic transactions, transform agricultural processes, support public health campaigns and connect learners to educational content. It will also critically engage with issues of equity, privacy and access. This is the fourth time that this class has been offered and the tenth skills institute that TechChange has facilitated at GW. Students can expect a dynamic learning environment with a number of real-world case studies, custom animations and video tutorials as well as practical activities designed to apply new skills and strategies.


 

IAFF 6504 International Proficiency: Spanish


 

IAFF 6504 International Proficiency: French


 

IAFF 6504 International Proficiency: Chinese


 

IAFF 6504 International Proficiency: Arabic


 

IAFF 6504 International Proficiency: Russia


 

IAFF 6505 Senior Manager Thesis


 

IAFF 6505 Senior Manager Course


 

IAFF 6515 Graduate Internship in International Affairs

Limited to Elliott School M.A. degree candidates. Internship and research paper involving experience at an international organization or with international issues.


 

IAFF 6516 Independent Study & Research

Faculty led independent study or faculty led research, must be approved by instructor before enrolling.


 

IAFF 6898 Capstone Workshop


 

IAFF 6899 Capstone Course


 

IAFF 6998 Thesis Research: Faculty-led thesis

Open to Elliott School M.A. candidates who have selected the thesis option.

IAFF 6101 International Affairs Cornerstone

Restricted to Master of Arts in International Affairs candidates.

 

IAFF 6102 Global Gender Policy

This course takes an interdisciplinary approach to examining the development of global policy aimed at achieving gender equality. The course provides an overview of the concept of gender equality, its capture in global policy and approaches to advancing implementation of select thematic areas of gender equality policy at global and country levels. Participants will gain knowledge of the genealogy of the current architecture of global gender equality policy, learn to critique policy approaches taken to advance gender equality and become familiar with the various strategies and tools used to advance implementation of these policies. Discussion of thematic policy areas includes formal economy employment, international security policy, education, health, violence against women, and responses to humanitarian crises.

 

IAFF 6101 Nuclear Weapons

Twenty-five years after the fall of the Berlin Wall and over two decades after the end of the Cold War, we find ourselves in a world in which nuclear weapons are still with us. Why do we have nuclear weapons? Why do countries seek nuclear weapons and how do they get them? How are nuclear weapons used, both in times of peace and in times of conflict? How is the spread of nuclear weapons controlled? Will we ever live in a world free of nuclear weapons? This course is designed to provide students with a basic orientation to the technologies, policies, and politics to answer these and other questions. We will examine the underlying technologies of the nuclear fuel cycle, production and accounting of nuclear weapons-usable fissile material, and the life cycle of nuclear weapons. We will discuss nuclear strategy and deterrence, particularly in how they relate to nuclear force planning and operations and the prospect of nuclear terrorism. Efforts to control the spread of nuclear weapons through nonproliferation, cooperative threat reduction, nuclear forensics, and counterproliferation are compared in the broader effort to control and reduce nuclear weapons through diplomacy and the means of verifying arms control and reduction agreements. Finally, we consider the prospects for moving to a world free of nuclear weapons.

 

IAFF 6107 The Science of Nuclear Materials

The Science of Nuclear Materials (ScNM) will be a combination of lectures and hands-on experiments designed to teach the fundamental principles of nuclear materials, as well as the nuclear fuel cycle in general, to non-technical individuals within the nuclear arena. We will explore the origins of radiation, manufacture, and detection of nuclear materials, and in addition to weapons and power issues, also explore medical uses and environmental issues. We will utilize lectures for the dissemination of science fundamentals, followed by hands-on laboratory experiments that reinforce lecture content. It will be assumed that students will have little scientific background prior to this course- a high school chemistry or physics course is sufficient. Moreover, there will be some mathematical exercises/activities wherein the instructor and TA will guide students through more challenging problems. Lastly, the following course schedule is intended to be dynamic. Topics are not etched in stone and we may adjust content based on skill level, interest or in response to current events.

 

IAFF 6108 International Development Policy

This course examines the scope and nature of international development assistance and the challenges currently facing development agencies. It surveys development theory since Bretton Woods and the Marshall Plan and considers how changes have been reflected in the operational strategies of leading bilateral and multilateral donors. Then the focus of the course will shift to the methods and tools that characterize the work of principal donors, from needs assessment and project design to evaluation. The effectiveness of development assistance will be an important theme of this course, in particular how mixed results have brought methods and concepts into question and how agencies are responding to this challenge.

 

IAFF 6118 Reinventing the United Nations

There is broad agreement that, despite more than twenty years of concerted reform efforts, the United Nations – including the many agencies that comprise what is known as the UN system – is not meeting expectations in areas critical to the management of global affairs. The course seeks to increase participants’ knowledge of the web of international organizations created over the past 70 years for the purpose of managing a widening range of global issues. In addition, the intent is to enable participants to gain a practical understanding of what is required to design competent organizations capable of managing the global challenges of the 21st century. The two principal course projects – the group presentations and the final policy paper – are designed to encourage participants to consider these issues from the perspective of the policymaker and the foreign policy practitioner. 

 

IAFF 6118 Leadership and International Affairs

The course will focus on the leadership challenges that Elliott School graduates are certain to confront in their professional lives. The course will begin with a consideration of case studies of famous international leaders, and how concepts of leadership have changed over time. Part II of the course will then move into examining the skill sets required of successful leaders at all levels of career development, drawing on examples and case studies from international settings. Part III of the course will look at the exercise of those skills in different institutional settings, including inside the US government, across diverse cultural boundaries, and in the leading of NGOs, international organizations and key governments. Case studies will also figure prominently. Part IV will look at tomorrow’s challenges for international leaders and includes the development of a personal leadership plan by each student. 

 

IAFF 6118 Rising China in Africa

This course looks at the totality of the China-Africa relationship historically, currently and into the future. It follows six years of research and writing for a book that I co-authored with Josh Eisenman published in 2012 by the University of Pennsylvania Press and titled China and Africa: A Century of Engagement. The course, which covers both North Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa, will give special attention to the security interests of China in Africa’s 54 countries.

 

IAFF 6118 Managing the World’s Water

Water has been at the center of development of societies since the dawn of civilization. Over the millennia humankind has succeeded in utilizing water services to irrigate farmlands, serve large urban centers with convenient services and greening of deserts.  In the past hundred years we have been paying increased attention to the costs of inaction of respecting the water cycle; with pollution, floods and landslides causing hugely expensive losses of life and property in developed and developing countries alike. The course's learning objectives and outcomes include: Learning about water concepts, institutions, and policies; Applying these to understand water management challenges for the resource, services and ecosystem dimensions; And being in a position to take an informed position on the ongoing debates on adaptation challenges of climate change.

 

IAFF 6118 Applied Qualitative Methods

This class introduces students to the main methods of qualitative research: interviewing, taking oral histories, running focus groups, doing surveys, and participant observation. Students will also discuss the ethics of qualitative research, looking at some studies that have been criticized as unethical (the infamous Stanford prison experiment, an undercover study of gay sexual practices, and a deceptive study of undergraduate dorm culture, for example). Students will spend part of the semester conducting their own research projects, which they will present to the class. Students will learn about qualitative research through "how-to" readings, reflective articles by practitioners, guest presentations, and by practicing the techniques we read about. From time to time the instructor will share his own research materials and discuss dilemmas he faced in his research.

 

IAFF 6118 Research Methods in Global Gender Issues

This course surveys mixed research methods with a focus on gender issues in the context of international development. Choosing which methods to use to collect information, and deciding what about gender is most relevant to improve conditions for both men and women as well as to assess development interventions are important elements of planning, policy, and projects. This course explores research techniques pertinent to gender mainstreaming and integration in particular, and international development in general. The objective is to provide an overview of theories and methods relevant to conducting research concerning development projects and programs. The course will encourage an exploration and critical examination of specific research skills and approaches.

 

IAFF 6118 Global Justice

Within the domestic context, we often ask ourselves questions about justice: Is a proposed law fair? What would be a just tax policy? As a citizen, how should I engage in the politics of my country? What values—freedom? equality? democracy?—should our political and social institutions promote or embody? In this class, we will address these kinds of questions as they arise in the global context: What would make the world order just? What principles and values should guide states’ foreign policy? How should individuals and other non-state actors engage in global politics? What do we owe to people in other countries? We will read political theory scholarship on global justice from a variety of different perspectives, and use the ideas therein to analyze real-world political issues such as poverty, humanitarian intervention, the refugee crisis, and globalization. By the end of the term, you will be able to make coherent, informed arguments of your own (both orally and in writing) related to (some of) the major ethical debates surrounding global politics today.

 

IAFF 6118 International Law and the Use of Force

The use of force is one of the major focal points at which international law and politics intersect.  This course provides an overview of various approaches to the legality of war, theories of just war, and humanitarian law, as well as important case studies including humanitarian intervention and emerging issues in cyber-security and automated weapons. Readings will emphasize both the legal and political aspects of the use of force in the contemporary international system. We will examine questions such as: What are the consequences of using force without regard for the legal basis of the decision? Is international law inadequate to reflect the needs of contemporary politics? Is “force” even understood uniformly in the international system? By the end of the course, students should have a good understanding of the difficult issues involved in using force both effectively and legitimately today given the increasing transparency of global politics and the trend towards institutionalized responses.

 

IAFF 6118 Human Rights Successes

This course examines successful efforts to expand and deepen the respect, protection, and fulfillment of human rights globally. It focuses on efforts of organizing, advocacy, campaigning, political engagement, policy change, and education that have tangibly, substantially, and meaningfully advanced the practice and realization of human rights. It considers both historical and contemporary human rights advancements and addresses the dynamic nature of human rights protection and fulfillment. The course considers how and why these human rights efforts have been successful and what we can learn from and apply from them in seeking to further advance human rights. The full spectrum of human rights including civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights will be addressed in the course.  

 

IAFF 6118 International Law

This course will cover the fundamental underpinnings of international law, with a focus on Public International Law, and address specialized topics ranging from environmental law to the law of war. At the end of the course, students should be conversant with the international legal order and have a strong understanding of the law’s applicability to international issues.

 

IAFF 6121 Cornerstone Seminar: IDS

This course intended for 1st year International Development Studies students only.

 

IAFF 6137 Development Studies Pre-Capstone Workshop

This course intended for 2nd year International Development Studies students only.

 

IAFF 6138 Local Governance, Decentralization, and Development

Is all development local? What constraints delivery of pro-poor services in places with such evident need? This course critically examines efforts to decentralize government functions in developing countries. When and how does bringing government "closer to the people" result in improved outcomes? Transparency, accountability and citizen voice are easy concepts to grasp, why are they effective in some places, not in others?  Health, education, water services are universal needs; how do elections, civil society, intergovernmental fiscal and other processes affect outcomes? In addition to readings and class discussion, students will conduct independent research on a particular service delivery challenge in a particular place, using a political economy approach that will be introduced in the course of the semester. Prior exposure to development economics helpful, not necessary.

 

IAFF 6138 Civil Society and Development

Since the end of the Cold War, academics, international development practitioners, and national policymakers have expended a great amount of energy and resources studying and promulgating the idea and practice of civil society. Civil society, of course, is not a new phenomenon. Religious groups, economic cooperatives and associating for interest or protection stretch back into ancient history. The Enlightenment gave civic organizing a place alongside government in early discussions of democracy and inalienable rights. The end of the Cold War and increased prevalence of international terrorism has ensured that the concept of democracy promotion and support of civil society organizations and activities remains high on both the international development and national security agendas. This course will equip students with theoretical, practical and operational perspectives on the concept of civil society and what it means in the context of international development. By the end of the course, students should be able to broadly define and describe a civil society framework, particularly how it relates to national and international democratic development. They should also be able to evaluate a country’s civil society sector as well as individual civil society organizations (CSOs), identify appropriate interventions and be in a position to evaluate their impact both negatively and positively towards strengthening civic activity and organizations.

 

IAFF 6138 Social Enterprise Development

The concept of social entrepreneurship is gaining increasing traction within the international development sector. Social enterprises are being promoted as the means to make growth strategies more inclusive and social service delivery more accessible. For its proponents, social entrepreneurship is at the vanguard of creating efficient and sustainable models for addressing major challenges ranging from empowering marginalized communities to contending with the threat of climate change. Social entrepreneurship, with it aims to simultaneously create economic and social value has its critics too. These critics point to the inherent difficulties in using a market based approach to addressing structural inequalities. As the traditional lines blur among nonprofits, government and business, it is critical that students of international development understand the opportunities and challenges facing social entrepreneurship. This course will equip students to understand and assess the range of current approaches being used to harness the potential of social entrepreneurship in developing countries around the world.  The class will be in seminar format, and students will be expected to participate actively in class discussions.  

 

IAFF 6138 Human Trafficking

This course will examine the global problem of human trafficking, a complex socio-economic, political, human rights, and law enforcement issue that affects individuals and communities in nearly all countries of the world. Countries can be an origin, transit, and/or destination for trafficked and exploited individuals. Vulnerabilities such as statelessness, poverty, the lack of economic opportunities, globalization, weak national laws and policies, displacement, strict migration policies, corruption, gender-based violence, and discrimination – among others – create conditions that allow traffickers/exploiters to take advantage of individuals and keep them in situations of forced labor and/or commercial sexual exploitation. Combating human trafficking requires a wide spectrum of activities usually referred to as the “4 Ps” – prevention, protection, prosecution, and partnership, along with “4 Rs” – rescue, raid, rehabilitation, and reintegration.

 

IAFF 6138 Power, Politics, and Development in Africa

Students in the course will be exposed to the broad themes related to the field of development, specifically in Sub-Saharan Africa. Students will be exposed to a cross-section of orientations towards development from various academic fields, with a specific focus on social, political, and economic development. Students will have wide latitude in guiding their study to best meet their interests beyond the core question of the class, which is: What are the key causal inputs to lagging development in Sub-Saharan Africa, and what is the most impactful means to design or assess “interventions?” Learning in this course will involve a mixture of styles, including learning by teaching, collaboration, and demonstration.

 

IAFF 6138 Gender and Development

This graduate-level seminar will begin by examining the evolution of theoretical approaches regarding gender and development and the debates that have emerged over how to promote gender equity and rights across the gender spectrum. We will then consider some of the key issues in the field of gender and development and the challenges and successes that development practitioners have experienced in addressing gender inequalities. Throughout the course, we will seek to identify general patterns and lessons with broader applications as well as to recognize differences within and between societies. We will use a combination of academic sources, international development reports, and other materials produced by development practitioners to ground our discussions and study how organizations have sought to implement gender-sensitive approaches to development. The assignments are practical and relevant to professional work in the field of gender and development.

 

IAFF 6138 M&E for Foreign Assistance Programs

Increasing focus continues to be placed on effective, rigorous monitoring and evaluation of U.S. foreign assistance efforts. Implementers of foreign assistance programs are required to identify robust and refined criteria to monitor and evaluate their work, with overall efforts under increasing scrutiny by policymakers. However, there is still a vibrant discussion on how best to monitor and evaluate many aspects of foreign assistance work, and the field of monitoring and evaluation is currently being shaped by debates over research design, methodology, and use. This course will explore the basic concepts and theories behind monitoring and evaluation and the tools/techniques used for measuring assistance programs. Throughout the course, we will explore various thematic questions: How can change be measured in complex systems? How should indicators of change be selected? How can evaluators strike a balance between learning and accountability? What makes for valid evaluation design, and are randomized control trials the ‘gold standard’ of foreign assistance evaluation? Can causality be isolated? How can evaluation findings be used?

 

IAFF 6141 International Science & Tech Policy Cornerstone

This course intended for ISTP students only.

 

IAFF 6145 U.S. Space Policy

This course will address international space policy issues facing the United States and place them in context with broader technological advances and the changing strategic environment. The course will address current bureaucratic and regulatory issues facing U.S. space programs with regard to dual-use technologies, including export controls, spectrum management, and licensing of commercial remote sensing systems. Conflicts over dual-use technologies, such as space launch, remote sensing, satellite navigation, and communications, will be examined for their implications for a range of national interests. The course will also address strategic choices facing other nations in space activities, including dependence on U.S., European, and Russian space capabilities, developing indigenous space programs, and use of commercial space capabilities.

 

IAFF 6148 Space and National Security

A broad, complex, and multidimensional set of factors contribute to the ability of states to use science and technology to advance their national security.  This course examines how effectively states, and the United States, in particular, develop policies designed to translate science and technology into a strategic advantage.  To assess this issue the course addresses a range of factors including innovation, revolutions in military affairs, globalization and international economic integration, technology transfer and export controls, changing global security dynamics, and the impact of emerging technologies on defense industries and military power.  Major themes addressed throughout the course would form parts of an integrative framework for understanding the interplay between science, technology, and national security policy.

 

IAFF 6158 Non-Proliferation Strategies for Emerging Technologies

The objective of this class is to explicate the mechanisms underlying the non-proliferation framework created in the aftermath of World War II and assess whether those mechanisms would work if similar non-proliferation frameworks were created to deal with emerging technologies including artificial intelligence and human genome editing. During the first third of the semester, the class will review the mechanisms underlying the nuclear, chemical and biological non-proliferation frameworks, including elements such as treaties, inspections to assure peaceful use of technologies, export control regimes, and norm construction.  The second third of the class will examine relevant international relations theories, like offense dominance, and characteristics of select emerging technologies (fiscal and technological entry costs; extent of global diffusion; extent of dual use between civilian and military purposes). The final third of the class will assess the extent to which elements of non-proliferation frameworks would be effective in mitigating the ill effects of specific emerging technologies. Each student will develop a paper recommending for or against the U.S. government pursuing the creation of an element of the non-proliferation framework for one of the emerging technologies studied in the class.

 

IAFF 6158 Science, Technology, & Policy Analysis

Many of the most important and salient policy decisions taken by governments are those that involve science or technology. Climate change, dangers posed by environmental hazards such as DDT and dioxin, the decisions involving nuclear weapons are policy issues that involve science and technology to a great degree. This course will offer an opportunity to ask probing questions about science and technology policy. How policymakers use science to make decisions, how policy affects science and technology, how risk and uncertainty are accounted for (or not) in decision‐making, whether policy decisions involving science and technology should be democratized, and how the public impacts science policy decisions are all topics that will be covered in this course. The course will take an international perspective on issues and provide opportunities for comparative analysis.

 

IAFF 6158 Cybersecurity

This course will focus on the transnational impact of non-state actors on international policy and security. We will analyze different types of actors, from transnational criminal organizations to NGOs to terrorist groups primarily through case studies. Students will consider the interaction of non-state actors with state actors, evaluating impacts on sovereignty and governance worldwide.

 

IAFF 6158 Climate Change & Energy Policy

Responding to climate change requires fundamentally changing the global energy and economic systems, and the policy and politics that shape them. In this course, students will examine the theory and practice of policymaking in global carbon emissions management and post-oil energy policy, both internationally in the context of global climate negotiations and comparatively at the national level for key states and regions like the US, China, the EU, and India. Students will also look at the broader context and implications for renewable energy and climate policy in areas such as international trade, intellectual property, global energy infrastructure, and development and distributional impacts.

 

IAFF 6161 International Security

Survey of the field of international security studies; overview of key concepts, theories, and approaches; inter-state, intra-state, and transnational security problems and the interrelated nature of these categories; analysis of security topics such as great-power relations, arms racing and arms control, crisis management, civil wars, terrorism, and gender, combined with a review of regional developments; non-military issues that have major security implications, including poverty, health, population movements, energy consumption, and climate change; the role of international organizations in promoting international security, and prospects for the future. **There are discussion sections linked to this lecture, please register for one.

 

IAFF 6163 Transnational Security

This course focuses on transnational security issues and considers how many of these myriad challenges constitute threats to global peace and security. The combined effects of such transnational security issues as drug, weapons, and human trafficking, piracy, acts of terrorism, infectious diseases, and deliberate environmental destruction, along with such critical enablers as corruption, and money movements are not strangers on the world stage. What is new is their global reach and destructive potential. As a result, these issues have made policymakers consider different conceptions of security and, at times, to move beyond sole considerations of state sovereignty into the realm of human security.

 

IAFF 6164 Environmental Security

Taking globalization and the continuing Global War on Terror into account, transnational concepts, including environmental change, have led to re-interpretations of security studies. However, the precise scope and meaning of the resulting environmental security field has been the subject of debate among policymakers and scholars. Through readings and seminar discussions, this course explores how the environment influences various aspects of security, including the relationship between conflict, environmental degradation, and natural resources. Using multidisciplinary academic literature, and policy-focused reports, the course begins with an analysis of theoretical security concepts and moves to a survey of major “drivers” of environmental security including: demographics; climate change; energy and natural resources; and water. Finally, students consider scenarios of how environmental security can be integrated into U.S. defense and foreign policy decisions in the coming decades.

 

IAFF 6165 Fundamentals of Intelligence

This graduate-level seminar will discuss the basics of intelligence collection, production, and analysis and provide an introduction to the U.S. Intelligence Community (IC), the authorities under which the IC operates, its role in informing U.S. national security and foreign policy, its role in implementing policy decisions, and the formation of policy and laws that guide the IC. The class will examine the IC in the context of historical, current, and expected future scenarios, and will discuss historic and potential future changes in how the IC informs and implements policy, as well as how oversight is conducted. In particular, the class will discuss the expanded role of the IC, both analytically and operationally, in the post-9/11 world, as well as the impact of the Wikileaks, Snowden, and other unauthorized disclosures in recent years.

 

IAFF 6171 Introduction to Conflict Resolution

In all human societies, conflict is an integral part of daily life, at personal, communal, national and global levels. Conflict can be constructive, focusing attention on neglected voices or social injustice, and driving cultural and political change. It can also be destructive, damaging relationships, polarizing societies or escalating into violence and war. This course is designed to familiarize students with the interdisciplinary field of conflict analysis and resolution, providing an overview of core concepts of contemporary theory and practice. The course will examine frameworks for analyzing the origins and processes of social conflict, and leading practical approaches to the conduct and evaluation of conflict resolution interventions. Our study will focus on intergroup and international levels of analysis, highlighting collective struggles over ideology and power, sovereignty, and self-determination, while highlighting the roles of culture, identity, power, relational dynamics and social structure. The first half of the course emphasizes conflict analysis; the second half emphasizes approaches to conflict resolution.

 

IAFF 6173 Security and Development

This course aims to consider the relationship between security and development across a number of issue areas. Its objective is to enable you to create your own ‘map’ of the relationship and help you to understand some of the connections and disconnections between the two fields.  The course will also allow you to deepen your understanding of one developing country and to demonstrate that knowledge through a range of products. The existence of this course reflects the fact that there is growing interest from the security field in issues that have traditionally been the purview of development. This seminar course looks at armed conflict and failed states, but it seeks to look beyond these issues as well to areas such as demography, the environment, urbanization, and trade, to see how the development-security relationship looks in these issue areas.

 

IAFF 6186 United States National Security

This course examines the problems and issues confronting American national security policymakers using a combination of empirical information and conceptual analysis. The course content includes conceptual definitions of national security, policymaking processes and debates, national security institutions and organizations, relationships between foreign, economic and defense policy, and civil-military relations. The course presumes familiarity with American politics and U.S. history and encourages students to keep up on relevant world events by reading legitimate news sources. At the end of the semester, students should be able to critically engage, understand, articulate and explain ideas and arguments about the U.S. national security process and the complexity of American strategic interests and decision-making processes.

 

IAFF 6186 Russia & International Security

This course examines how Russia’s security apparatus executes disinformation campaigns, political sabotage, election disruption, government subterfuge, artificial intelligence “bots” in social media, computational propaganda, and new technologies to dominate conventional battlefields. Other topics include: Pre-Soviet and Soviet military history; Russian foreign policy and grand strategy; NATO enlargement; the Ukraine/Crimean crisis and aftermath, energy security; cyber warfare and espionage; status of new Russian defense systems and military capabilities; post-Soviet States’ security and Eurasian conflicts; nuclear strategy, arms control, and missile defense; and whether the US, Russia, and China are enemies, allies, or rivals.

 

IAFF 6186 Emerging Threats

This course surveys emerging risks and challenges that threaten human, national and global security. It does so by paying special attention to a range of military and non-military issues where science and technology play a major role. Topics covered include how to think about the concepts of risk and securitization; revolutions in military affairs and hybrid warfare; the challenges of nuclear security and terrorism; conflict in cyberspace; the uses and consequences of robotics, drones and autonomous weapons systems; military developments in biotechnology; artificial intelligence; as well as non-military issues related to demography, urbanization, public health, the environment, and outer space. For each issue, the course examines the politics of scientific and technological evolution by identifying the key drivers of change; the nature of threats at the local, national, and global levels; and how existing security policies should be reformed in response. A technical background is not required but will enhance one’s understanding.

 

IAFF 6186 International Organized Crime

International Organized Crime is a graduate-level seminar, focused on developing broad critical skills and knowledge around IOC and the aspects and issues that intersect with the topic. Transnational crime will be a defining issue of the 21st century for policymakers – as defining as the Cold War was for the 20thcentury and colonialism was for the 19th. This course will involve extensive reading, research, and writing. It will also involve vigorous group discussion on the assigned readings/topic. Certain portions of what we will discuss and encounter are rich enough to warrant a dedicated course – such as illicit trafficking, money laundering, or corruption. We will examine a variety of international organized criminal groups and their illicit activities. This survey will provide a solid basis for further, more in-depth study of these attributes, functions, and entities. It will consist of academic writings, broad overview lectures, specific student presentations and contemporary readings of the issues we are studying.

 

IAFF 6186 Maritime Security and Threats

Globalization and technology have made supply chains longer and more complex. This course examines the economic significance of maritime resources and the global supply chain as it pertains to maritime security and threats, including piracy, smuggling, natural resources, maritime critical infrastructure, disasters, and terror/cyber-attacks. Students will analyze how economic prosperity depends on the safe and efficient transportation of raw material and goods, and the impact of supply disruptions caused by natural or man-made events. The course is designed to introduce students to international law, national security strategies, and policies used to claim/compete for natural resources in highly disputed waters and control important sea lines of communication.

 

IAFF 6186 Stabilization & Peacebuilding

The classic interstate conflicts of the past have been largely replaced by intra-state and regional conflicts involving both state and non-state actors. States and regions beset by political and economic instability provide fertile ground for nationalist, sectarian and ethnic conflict, and terrorism and organized criminal activities. In addition, the inability of many of these fragile and weak states to confront natural and man-made disasters, the effects of climate change, pandemic disease and worldwide economic shocks adds further stresses that can exacerbate conflict. This course will examine the lessons from these missions covering general principles and approaches that can be applied for stabilization and peacebuilding, required resources, the structures that have been organized to mount such operations, the gaps that remain, and the knowledge and skills the new peacebuilder needs to operate in these environments.

 

IAFF 6186 Cyber Threats, Policy, & Strategy

This course examines current issues in the realm of cybersecurity, focusing on cybersecurity strategy, threats, conflict, and policy. It begins with an understanding of the power inherent in cyberspace and considers the policy issues facing the civilian, military, intelligence and private business sectors in dealing with offensive and defensive cyber activity. Through case studies, it examines previous and ongoing cyber conflicts to understand their impacts on international relations. Students will analyze the roles of several different types of actors in cyber security including states, non-state actors such as criminal and terror groups, and private sector responses. This course will also analyze cyber deterrence and the unique aspects of offensive and defensive cyber activities by all cyber actors. Technical background is not required and basic aspects of cyber operations will be discussed and demonstrated as part of the introductory class sessions.

 

IAFF 6186 Heroes & Villains in the Global Arena

Close study of individual world leaders provides one of the many entries into understanding world events.   Fascinating and complex, word leaders have engaged the imagination of scholars and practitioners across disciplines and throughout history. This course will focus on understanding the psychology of leaders, how they both react to and shape their contexts, the myths and narratives that develop around them, and how formal assessment of individual leaders has been used historically in industry, diplomacy, and national security contexts. Using historical case studies of both famous and infamous world leaders, the course focuses on assessing the person of the leader:  background and personality, health, behavior, and relationships with his or her inner circle. The course also surveys important elements of a leader’s interplay with his or her cultural, social and political context, including large-group dynamics with followers, how leaders relate to each other, and the shifting myths, fantasies and narratives that develop around these larger-than-life personalities. The course also addresses the utility, common pitfalls, and ethics of developing formal leader assessments.

 

IAFF 6186 Political Violence & Terrorism

This course examines the origins, strategies, and types of terrorism and political violence. It is divided into sections on different types of terrorism from religiously motivated political violence to right-wing terrorist activity. Students will learn about the strategies used by these groups, including through case studies of individual terrorist groups. Additionally, it will examine several special topics as “lone wolf” and suicide terrorists.

 

IAFF 6186 Civil-Military Relations

The study of civil-military relations examines the relationship and interaction of the government, military and the citizenry – all of whom are crucial players in the shaping of national security policy. However, each of these institutions has its own priorities, values and purposes, yet they all must find ways to cooperate in order to protect the country’s interests, both domestically and abroad.  Moreover, each carries its own unique source of power which demands a careful balancing at the risk of subverting one of the others. This course will examine a broad range of topics regarding civil military relations to include civil-military theory, practice (both in western and non-western societies) and various socio-political issues that influence civil-military relations in the 21stcentury (mass media, contractors and the “civ-mil gap”).  The course will also explore recent case studies (Iraq and Afghanistan) to analyze how all the major players in the civil-military relations dynamic have functioned in two major applications of military force. Overall, this course will help inform the statesman, professional military officer and citizen in creating a better understanding of his/her role in relation to their government and society in the policy making process.

 

IAFF 6186 U.S. Special Operations: Understanding SOF Utility Across the Spectrum of Conflict

This seminar is designed as a graduate course to examine the use of U.S. Special Operations Forces in support of a broad range of national security objectives. Taught by a former Special Operations officer, the course explores both historical and contemporary debates over the use of Special Operations Forces. Although primarily focused upon U.S. Special Operations from World War II to the present, the course will also briefly delve into how special operations forces have been used by other countries throughout history.  Questions and topics to be discussed include: what are special operations; what are the different types of U.S. Special Operations Forces; what are the different roles and missions of each force element; how have Special Operations historically been used; how will Special Operations be used in the future; and what organizational and cultural challenges face the future force. These topics are introduced to students using multiple heuristic tools, including lectures, discussions, case studies, policy debates, and guest speakers.

 

IAFF 6186 Early Warnings & Conflict Prevention

It has long been a truism that prevention is better than cure. Support for the prevention of large-scale violent conflicts blossomed after the end of the Cold War and has grown with the recognition of the increasing interconnectedness of many contemporary threats. Yet, finding reliable strategies for conflict prevention has proven uniquely challenging. This course will address major policy and academic issues in conflict early warning and prevention. Readings will include academic literature, NGO and think tank reports, and official policy documents. Most classes will include discussion of a historical or contemporary case study, a guest speaker, and/or a practical exercise.

 

IAFF 6186 Coercion & Deterrence in Peace & War

In the 21st century, governments can use a variety of tools to coerce and deter each other, from economic sanctions to nuclear weapons. Decision-makers in the United States and other governments frequently combine these tools to try to change the behavior of other states, employing what is often called a “whole-of-government” or “cross-domain” approach to coercion and deterrence. In this course, students will learn to think systematically about how these tools can be combined to produce more effective foreign policy outcomes in peacetime and war. Using key theories of deterrence and coercion, and examples from contemporary international relations, we will assess the similarities and differences, and past successes and failures of the following coercive tools: economic sanctions, political influence operations, sanctions in international organizations, cyber attacks, paramilitaries and proxies, conventional military power, and nuclear weapons. We will also examine how policy-makers select which tool(s) to use in a specific situation, how to integrate plans to use different tools, and why policy-makers may fail to integrate planning, leading to unintended, negative foreign policy outcomes. Examples used in this course are drawn primarily from East Asia, in comparative perspective.

 

IAFF 6186 U.S. Grand Strategy

This course examines U.S. grand strategy, meaning the politico-military continuum of means and ends that the state employs to achieve security. The course first analyzes the concept of grand strategy: what it means, how it’s achieved and when it fails. The course then turns to causes of grand strategy—the international conditions, technological developments, geographic circumstances, domestic actors and ideological beliefs that shape strategic options. Finally, to make these concepts more concrete, the course examines U.S. grand strategy at two pivotal points in recent U.S. history: the early Cold War, when the United States introduced nuclear missiles into the military, and today.

 

IAFF 6186 Terrorism Today

This course will examine the fundamentals of understanding the threat posed by terrorism, the basics of counterterrorism, and look at several key issues important to the study of terrorism. The approach of this course is multi-disciplinary, examining terrorism through the lens of political science, history, law, economics, criminology, and religious studies. The course is designed to provide a basis for understanding the phenomenon of terrorism and to set it into an appropriate context in relation to other critical issues facing a globalized society. 

 

IAFF 6186 International Peacekeeping

The roles peacekeepers can play in implementing peace agreements and protecting civilians in cases of warfare and atrocities has been hotly disputed for decades. This course examines the major policy debates about contemporary peace operations, including those conducted by the United Nations and regional organizations such as the African Union and European Union. It analyzes the crucial political and organizational dynamics behind these missions as well as ongoing challenges including force generation, regionalization, privatization, gender dynamics, rule of law, use of force, organized crime and counter-terrorism. It will enable students to critically assess the strengths and limitations of these missions.

 

IAFF 6186 Insurgency & Counterinsurgency

This course provides students with an introduction to the nature of insurgency, some key historical examples of how insurgencies were defeated, and analytical frameworks and tools for understanding and countering insurgencies. It is intended to provide a solid foundation for further inquiry into related topics such as irregular warfare, security and development, stabilization and peacebuilding, responses to terrorism, and conflict resolution. The course examines the multi-disciplinary nature of insurgencies, and introduces students to the major concepts and issues of the topic, explores the main types of insurgencies, and analyzes in depth a number of strategic cases of counterinsurgency to help students understand the complexity and the variety of this form of warfare in the modern world. The course provides key frameworks for analysis for the study of insurgency and explores possible solutions to a number of current conflicts.  

 

IAFF 6186 Political Risk Analysis

Political risk analysis is a multidisciplinary field of study which analyzes, measures, manages and mitigates the impact of political risk on foreign and domestic businesses and investments, organizations, and individuals. Political risk emanates from the (in)actions or reactions of stakeholders within a political system to events. This course examines political risk analysis frameworks and methodologies that measure and mitigate political risk in a range of environments at the macro (national and international) and at the micro (local and regional) levels. Approaches will combine research from International Relations as well as risk analysis derived from psychology to provide students with an array of approaches to understanding the critical aspects of evaluating risks. Emphasis is placed on the interchangeable connection between theory, research and practice, as well as the integration of various approaches towards political risk analysis in an organized framework.  

 

IAFF 6198 Macro Policy: Case Studies

This course makes use of macroeconomic theory to analyze real world policy questions. The first two weeks will be used to present a simple macroeconomic framework (financial programming) which can be used as a starting point for our analysis. The remainder of the course is divided into 2-3 week case studies. Among the issues to be examined are: identifying economic and financial vulnerabilities; evaluating monetary and fiscal policy stances; designing economic programs for countries in crisis; developing policy recommendations to raise potential growth; and devising strategies for economic transition. For each of these, a specific country case will be presented, followed by student presentations on the same broad issue. The overarching goal is for students to better understand how macroeconomic policy is implemented under a range of economic and political circumstances as well as the tradeoffs faced by macroeconomic policy-makers.

 

IAFF 6198 Corporate Finance

This course explores the sources of managerial information that are provided by money and capital markets, primary and secondary markets, and cash and futures markets; Money and capital market instruments, relevant return measures, risk metrics for bonds and equities. Theory, policy, and practice of financial management are examined through the elements of financial analysis, sources of funds, investing, capital planning and budgeting, dividend policy, and working capital management.

 

IAFF 6208 Public Diplomacy

This course examines the expanding public dimension of modern diplomacy. It builds on global interest in public diplomacy in the 21st century’s diplomatic environment. We will explore how diplomats and political leaders communicate in a world of rapid globalization, new diplomatic actors, complex policy issues, digital technologies, increased risk, and uncertain boundaries between foreign and domestic. This seminar is designed to help public diplomacy concentrators deepen their knowledge and serve the interdisciplinary interests of students in global communication, international relations, and media studies.

 

IAFF 6211 MIPP Leadership Practicum

The MIPP seminar will focus on major issues in international affairs confronting policymakers in the United States and around the world, and it will explore the evolving nature of international leadership in the twenty-first century. We will examine the diverse ways in which power is exercised on the international stage not only by large organizations such as nation states and transnational corporations, but also by “micro-powers” including activists, insurgents, and entrepreneurs who are shaking up the global order. Through discussions with academic and policy experts, the seminar intends to integrate insights from the participants’ other coursework as well as the participants’ own diverse experience and knowledge. This course intended for MIPP students only.

 

IAFF 6212 Strategy and Leadership

Leaders in government, the private sector, and the non-profit sector must be able to develop a compelling strategy that is understood by managers and employers.  They will be most successful if they can articulate a vision for staff and clients to embrace. The goal of this course is to provide you with some knowledge and tools to devise and implement your own smart visions and strategies at any level.  The basis is how leaders determine their vision and then communicate and execute the vision, using their leadership skills.

 

IAFF 6213 Leadership Capstone

This courses intended for MIPP students only.

 

IAFF 6216 Economic Tools for Global Policy

In this course, MIPP Online students will analyze economic issues and concrete economic policy problems. This course examines questions such as: How does economic policy affect technology and immigration - and vice versa? What are the implications of various trade policies on the global economy? How has globalization and rapid spread of high-tech communication influenced the US economy? 

 

IAFF 6321 Colloquium: Europe & Eurasia

Europe and Eurasia play a crucial role in contemporary world affairs: Europe represents a large portion of the global economy; after the Cold War European nations have participated in, and in some cases led, military operations in Iraq, Afghanistan, Libya, and sub-Saharan Africa; and European allies and partners are working with the U.S. on issues such as the Syrian civil war and Iran’s nuclear ambitions. NATO and the European Union have expanded extensively and are developing partnerships with countries far beyond the Union’s traditional area of interest, including countries such as Ukraine and Georgia. The course integrates analysis of current developments in Europe and Eurasia with an examination of their roots in the past, going back to 1945.

 

IAFF 6338 The European Union

This course examines the history and development of postwar European integration; the structure and processes of the European Union; and EU and national policies, with a focus on the interaction of the EU and the Member States. It is a seminar, though there will be lectures as well. In addition to imparting knowledge about the EU, the course aims to improve analytical, writing and presentational skills through the preparation of a 25-page research paper, brief written assignments, a simulation exercise and an oral briefing. By following instructions and carrying out the assignments successfully, students should be able to analyze institutional, political, economic and social dynamics of the EU and Member States, critically evaluate the literature on these topics, formulate policy recommendations, utilize hypothesis-testing guidelines, conduct research systematically and write clearly.

 

IAFF 6338 Politics of Post-Soviet Eurasia

This course is a seminar on comparative politics and state building in the non-Russian successor states of the USSR – a region often referred to as post-Soviet Eurasia. The course is structured both by topic, and by subregion, and addresses the following issues: the concept of political “transition”; historical legacies and the construction of political institutions; democracy, authoritarianism, and hybrid regimes; informal practices; popular mobilization; economic foundations of power; and the “new” post-Soviet politics. The course is not a comprehensive survey of politics in the region, although it includes case studies of political developments in several states (including Ukraine, Georgia, Belarus, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and others). Readings have been selected on the basis of a combination of empirical research and comparative value, as well as the extent to which they are in dialogue with each other.

 

IAFF 6338 Transatlantic Relations in the 21st Century

For decades after World War II, the Alliance between Europe and North America was critical to global security, prosperity, and expanding democracy. With the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the age of globalization and the internet, the character of the transatlantic relationship has changed fundamentally. Instead of focusing inside Europe, the transatlantic Allies now must focus on working together to address an array of complex global challenges that span a political, economic and security spectrum. This graduate seminar examines the origins of the transatlantic partnership and the perspectives of key institutions and states; the role of values and strategy; the political, economic and security changes that have taken place since 1989; and the challenges the transatlantic community now faces in working together to deal with a complex 21st century world against the backdrop of the 2016 elections.

 

IAFF 6341 LAHSP Cornerstone

This course intended for LAHSP students only.

 

IAFF 6357 LAHSP Pre-Capstone Workshop

This course intended for LAHSP students only.

 

IAFF 6358 OAS&Democracy in the Americas

This course will examine the origins, principles, purposes, structure and functions of the Organization of American States (OAS), concentrating on its role of promoting and defending democracy in the Hemisphere, including the tensions, limitations and challenges involved.  Special emphasis will be placed on the legal and diplomatic instruments and on the activities/programs the Organization carries out in fulfilling that role. Classes will frequently involve discussion of inter-American relations, particularly US-Latin American relations, their evolution and present; Latin American democratic versus authoritarian politics, and democracy promotion theory and practice. At the end of the course, students will be expected to demonstrate knowledge and understanding the OAS role in the promotion and defense of democracy in the Western Hemisphere, and should be able to evaluate its performance in terms of that role. More specifically, students should be able to identify the Inter-American instruments and activities OAS member states have developed for that role, and critically analyze and assess their application and impact in particular cases or circumstances. 

 

IAFF 6358 Latin America in Motion: IndgnousMed&Mvts

Cinema and documentary film have played an important role in shaping politics, social movements and public spheres in Latin America since the 1960s.  The arrival of indigenous filmmakers and the narratives they author has built on these foundations, adding complexities in position, substance and style that we will unpack in this course. Embracing a hemispheric, las Américas perspective, this course will look broadly at production models and aesthetic and political debates that have informed Latin American (and to some extent [email protected]) film and media practices since the mid-twentieth century as well as the some of the social movements that underwrite them.  Our consideration of these topics will be accompanied by screening of relevant film, video, and television productions and geographic areas of emphasis include Mexico, Cuba, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina.

 

IAFF 6358 Government & Politics in Latin America

Populism has gone global and, while it continues to be a recurring phenomenon throughout Latin America, it currently seems to be waning in the region.  Globalization, neo-liberalism, and democratization, while improving conditions in many countries, have been less successful in others or failed to meet rising expectations for progress. That left an opening for populism to emerge since the turn of the millennium. This course is designed to give students a thorough understanding of populism, the rich theoretical debates surrounding the concept, as well as classical and contemporary empirical manifestations of the phenomenon. Students should be prepared to engage social theory as well as historical and contemporary case study analyses.

 

IAFF 6358 Immigration & Weak States

This course will look at the factors that give rise to weak states close to the US border, the resulting migration trends, options for improving these societies, and the policy tools that the United States has at its disposal to mitigate push factors. A thorough examination of Central America’s Northern Triangle will then provide the basis for a comparative look at the reasons behind and responses to migratory outflows from Cuba and present-day Venezuela. Students will analyze present-day economic, security and governance challenges and think through realistic policy options.

 

IAFF 6361 Middle East Studies Cornerstone

This course intended for MES graduate students only.

 

IAFF 6377 Middle East Studies Capstone

This course intended for MES graduate students only.

 

IAFF 6378 U.S. Policy in the Gulf

On March 19, 2003, forces of the United States and coalition countries opened military action against Iraq that resulted in the overthrow of Saddam Hussein and eight years of US military presence. This military intervention focused Americans on the Persian Gulf region. Yet, the coalition’s war with Iraq was neither the beginning nor the end of U.S. engagement in the Persian Gulf—a strategic body of water whose very name is under dispute. This course focuses on the evolution of United States foreign policy in the Persian Gulf from the end of World War II to present, examining both its causes and effects. The Cold War, Arab Nationalism, Islam, oil, and regional rivalries will be looked at as factors impacting U.S. decision-making and actions.

 

IAFF 6378 Islamic Political Thought

This seminar discusses the history, politics, and culture of Islam and Islamic law, from the early Islam until today. The materials and readings discussed in the classroom provide diverse approaches to Islamic law and cover the main classical schools of jurisprudence, on the one hand, and contemporary movements centralized on Islamic law in the Middle East, on the other. The discussions of the seminar include the issue of modern state, the role of Islamic law and Muslim scholars in the political setting, the Islamic codification, and the Islamization project in the Arab world. Finally, the seminar engages the students in the topics of Islamic constitutionalism and constitutional theocracy in the Middle East. 

 

IAFF 6378 Neighbors & Rivals: Iran & the Arab World

This course will focus on the relationship between Iran and its Arab Gulf neighbors. It will seek to offer students an in-depth look at the geopolitical relations of the region by focusing on three main themes: Religion and Ideology, Political Economy and Geo-strategic and Security perspectives. Through weekly lectures and discussions, we will cover these themes while shedding light on the history of the region, rivalries and cooperation, alliances, as well as the Arab and Iranian perspective on events in and outside of the region. As much as it might be interesting to delve into the deep historical ties between Arabs and Iranians, this course will focus on relations after WWII through highlighting key moments such as: the 1953 coup in Iran, the Arab-Israeli wars and peace process, the 1979 Iranian Revolution, the Iraq-Iran war, the U.S. invasion of Iraq and the 2011 Arab uprisings among others. With the changing geopolitics and security of the region over the past decade, coupled with the wave of Arab protests and civil wars, Arab-Iranian relations have been facing growing suspicions and uncertainties leading to an ongoing proxy war between the main Gulf rivals --Saudi Arabia and Iran. This rivalry is not isolated from the expanding Turkish role, the rise and fall of ISIS in Iraq or the changing nature of the American and Russian roles in the Middle East.

 

IAFF 6378 Political Economy of the Middle East

The Middle East is a complex, dynamic and critical region of the world. Its politics move rapidly, sometimes radically, and its economies are diverse, but with many commonalities. The interaction between domestic politics, domestic economic forces, and globalization has been amply demonstrated by the Arab Spring and its aftermath. Clearly, economic forces serve to both generate and allocate a society’s resources. Success or failure in the ability to produce income and appropriately allocate it is a critical factor for social stability and a frequent influence on relations with external actors, most commonly neighboring states or more distant ones such the U.S., China, or other global powers. Other important actors, non-state ones, include the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, OPEC, and terrorist groups. A proper understanding of this region requires an appreciation of its economic challenges and processes as well as the interplay between economic policies/outcomes and domestic/international political forces.

 

IAFF 6378 The Middle East in the World

What would a global history of the modern Middle East look like? What kinds of questions and stories would it bring into view that compartmentalized national histories occlude? This graduate seminar draws on recent works that situate the social, economic, cultural, and political transformations that have swept the region over the past two centuries within broader global trends. In addition to investigating how these trends shaped local dynamics, we will investigate how local ideas and practices helped to shape the phenomena that we associate with the modern age: capitalism, slavery, imperialism, nationalism, migration, and industrial technology, among others. Our focus on the region’s linkages with ideas, commodities, and communities “outside” will also encourage us to think more critically and expansively about the geopolitical and cultural boundaries of the “Middle East” as a unit. That is, beyond our predictable examination of the encounter with “the West,” we will trace critical but neglected encounters to the east, south, and north.

 

IAFF 6378 Iraq & Syria in the 20th Century

At the close of the twentieth century the proposition that the Ba‘thist regimes of Iraq and Syria had constructed “rogue states” that lay outside the international system was an axiom of US foreign policy. This course seeks to engage with this proposition by examining the modern history of these two states, with special emphasis on the roles of external forces in their formation, the emergence of their authoritarian regimes, and their eventual isolation and demonization. This colloquium is designed for graduate students in IMES, in Middle East history, or who have a special interest in the region. It will examine the modern history of two states whose experiences during the modern period reflect broader regional and global realities. The course begins with the final years of the Ottoman Empire, covers the mandatory regimes in Damascus and Baghdad, the establishment of independent states, and the processes by which authoritarian regimes came to power. It ends with the early 1990s – the later years of Hafiz al-Asad’s rule in Syria and the imposition of sanctions on Saddam Hussein’s regime in Iraq. 
 

IAFF 6501 Quantitative Analysis for International Affairs Practice

This course is designed to provide a strong analytical foundation in elementary statistical reasoning and techniques, and the skills necessary to understand, evaluate, and critic, claims, and conventional wisdom and popular opinion. Topics include descriptive statistics; sampling and statistical inference; testing for differences between means; techniques for analyzing categorical data; correlation, and measures of association; summarizing and presenting statistical results; and some of the fundamental issues of research study design. The course is rigorous but does not require an advanced mathematics background. Class time will be a mix of lecture, discussion, and hands-on computer work. Class attendance is essential.

 

IAFF 6502 Participatory Monitoring & Evaluation for Development

This skills seminar will introduce the student to practical frameworks and tools for participatory design, monitoring, and evaluation of international development programs. The course will familiarize students with the broader international development discourse as the context for current practice in participatory monitoring and evaluation. Drawing upon case studies from democracy and governance programming, the course will facilitate student learning through the use of three interactive workshops, assigned readings, and a final written assignment.

 

IAFF 6502 Alternative Analysis: Red Team

Members of both the 9/11 Commission and the WMD Commission expressed concerns that the U.S. intelligence community lacks imagination, does not "think outside the box," or challenge prevailing assumptions when analyzing threats to national security. Alternative analysis—often referred to as "red cell" or "red team”—uses various analytical methodologies to provide a more complete picture of issues than traditional analysis alone. Students will also be introduced to various methods or war gaming formats in which red teaming is applied. Students will be required to apply a variety of techniques used in red teaming and participate in a multi-sided war game.

 

IAFF 6502 Resilience

In fragile and conflict-affected countries, civil strife pins communities against each other as spoilers manipulate existing tensions, deepening fault lines, and fracturing relationships. This course is designed to introduce future policy-makers, strategic planners, and program implementers to concepts surrounding resilience; the impact of violent conflict on social cohesion; and interventions that rebuild patterns of trust networks and communication. Through experiential learning, students will be exposed to a series of practical tools to help identify change-makers, heal the harm done by violence, restore relationships and build local grievance mechanisms to strengthen community resilience.

 

IAFF 6502 Opinion Journalism

The world of journalism is changing quickly. Serious opinion used to mean long pieces published in The Atlantic or similar magazines or 800-1,000 word offerings in “serious” newspapers such as the New York Times or Washington Post. In this course, we will write. We’ll blog, and we’ll offer opinions on a range of topics. The course will be guided by news events, and we will comment on them, offering opinions in succinct, understandable formats. By the end of the course, you will author a final paper: an op-ed piece. Op-eds are still the most important piece of real estate on a newspaper’s opinion pages, and they fill up opinion sites both left and right.

 

IAFF 6502 Negotiation Skills

This course is designed to enhance the participants’ negotiation and leadership skills for managing differences between individuals and groups. Class members will learn how to handle two and multiparty negotiations and analyze the importance of empathy and creative option design.  The course will be a blend of skill-building exercises and discussions about the behavior of individuals to understand the negotiation dynamics.

 

IAFF 6502 Technology for International Crisis Response

The advent of new technologies has fundamentally changed the capacity for processing and exchanging information in the 21st century. This professional development course will explore how technology is being used to respond to crises, create early warning mechanisms, monitor elections, provide banking services, ensure effective governance, and much more. It will also consider some of the key challenges related to access, implementation, scale, and evaluation that working with technology presents. The course is designed for graduate students to assist them in developing concrete strategies and technological skills to work amid this rapidly evolving landscape. Students can expect a hands-on and interactive learning environment with a variety of real-world examples from organizations working in the field.

 

IAFF 6502 Political Risk Analysis

This course will focus on providing students with an understanding of different types of political risk and real-world applications of political risk analysis. We will look at how political risks emerge, how they impact different sectors of the economy and how they can be anticipated, mitigated and managed.

 

IAFF 6502 Formal Briefing

This course explores the why, what, and how of creating and presenting information to an audience. It will start with why briefings are an important mode of expression, and why storytelling is the single most important consideration in conceptual design.

 

IAFF 6502 Writing for International Policymakers

Clear, concise and persuasive analytic writing is an essential skill for international affairs professionals. Effective analysis for policymakers succinctly assesses matters in ways that provide information, context, and insight and makes useful recommendations. Key characteristics include focus, relevance, brevity, and readability.  This course will involve short written assignments, as well as group discussions and peer critiques, aimed at developing the writing and analytic skills necessary to support, inform, and influence policymakers and implement policy.

 

IAFF 6502 Cross-Cultural Communications

The ability to communicate effectively and sensitively across cultures has become both more critical and more difficult in today’s global environment. The focus of the course will be the development of cross-cultural communications/awareness, management, and negotiation skills. National, regional and universal levels of culture and communications will be explored. Course methodologies will include case studies, videos, simulation, and assessment instruments relative to communicating and working in multicultural settings. The course also uses a comparativist approach to flesh out the significance and implications of cultural underpinnings, factors, and variables necessary for successful communication between cultures and individuals in an increasingly globalized world.

 

IAFF 6502 Advocating for Women’s Rights

This skills class will equip students with the building blocks for conducting successful advocacy efforts on global women’s issues. It will foster an understanding of different elements of an advocacy campaign, from grassroots mobilization to direct engagement of policymakers through individual, celebrity and coalition advocacy. It will build students’ skills in various tactics such as identifying the elements of “the ask,” crafting successful messages, building and managing coalitions, conducting power analysis, crafting the “elevator pitch,” and tailoring messaging for media. Finally, it will examine successful case studies of gender-responsive foreign policy from the perspective of advocates and policymakers alike.

 

IAFF 6502 Public Opinion in International Affairs

The goals of the course are to make students conversant in survey research, better consumers of public opinion data and gain the ability to use survey data in their work—all without having to become a statistician! This course will offer specific examples of how public opinion data has been used to inform policymakers. This is followed by a comparison of the validity of traditional survey research methods versus the more newly arrived social media sentiment analysis. It will provide an overview of the different methods of data collection as well as an introduction to sampling and questionnaire design and quality control measures. Students will then be exposed to how data is interpreted and used to form the backbone of pithy and cogent analyses. The course will conclude with an exercise in which students will review a data set and draft a policy memo based on a particular theme.

 

IAFF 6502 Participatory Planning

Participation is a fundamental concept to development. This course aims to build an appreciation of the nuances of participation and to impart specific methods and tools that facilitate participation. The course will cover the principles of participatory learning and action, provide helpful “Do’s” and “Don’t’s” of carrying out participatory activities and processes and touch on the caveats of participatory methods in the development industry.  The tools and methods covered in the course are drawn from community development planning, participatory rural/urban appraisal, participatory monitoring and evaluation, and participatory learning and action.

 

IAFF 6502 Public Speaking & Performance

This course explores the art of public speaking through the lens of performance. Topics include: clear and effective communication, engaging with your audience, listening skills, and the public speaking warm-up and cool-down. The course will be a blend of skill-building exercises and discussions about constructing a speech. The course will utilize various theories from theatre performance and incorporate them into the public speaking process.

 

IAFF 6502 Human Centered Design

This experiential and interactive course exposes students to the tools, tactics, and frameworks used by international innovators, entrepreneurs, and designers to empathize with populations they seek to serve, define problem sets, and come up with innovative solutions to solve the world toughest problems. I will draw from examples of how human-centered design is being used in South America, Africa, and India to bring women out of poverty, provide livable wages, and combating the AIDS epidemic. Tools gained at this workshop will benefit those with a passion for social change in an international context and/or those at the early stages of exploring their own innovations solutions, ideas, nonprofits, and social enterprises. We encourage participation from individuals that have identified a problem they would like to solve and/or those that have an idea or new program the positively impacts committees. No prior experience with human-centered design or design thinking is necessary to attend.

 

IAFF 6502 STATA: Fundamentals

IAFF 6502.26 is a four-week Stata introduction course that will cover basics skills for students to get hands on using Stata for data analysis. This course provides basic introduction to Stata software and its applications on data management, data analysis and econometric modeling.

 

IAFF 6502 International Non-Profit Management

The non-profit sector has grown exponentially in the last few decades – both domestically and internationally - and so have the competing demands to demonstrate data-driven results, raise public awareness and fundraise on multiple platforms. These competing demands require effective management skills to run non-profit organizations and achieve impact. Key skills include defining, understanding and ongoing assessment of an organization’s mission, communication and advocacy strategies, effective programs, development and financial targets, identification of fundraising opportunities and management a team that may even meet in person regularly. This course will be taught by learning how to evaluate non-profit organizations using a Non-Profit Organizational Capacity Mapping Framework and by discussing Case Studies in class. Prior reading of the Case Studies for each seminar class is required because the case studies will be taught using the Socratic Method with students explaining the Case Studies and Responding to questions by the Lecturer and other students. The themes that will be covered by both the case studies and the Capacity Mapping Framework will include lectures and discussions about Mission; Program/Theory of Change; Evaluation & Log Frames; Fundraising & Communication Strategies; NGO Management in the 21st Century and Non-Profit Governance. For the course’s final project, students will be divided into teams and given the assignment to jointly draft and present a program proposal for funding that clearly demonstrates their grasp and application of the topics covered in the course.

 

IAFF 6503 Leadership and Teamwork

This course explores the dynamics of teambuilding, communication, and leadership that will increase managerial effectiveness. Topics include: communication and conflict, decision-making and problem-solving, teams vs. groups, group dynamics, consensus, team building and leadership.  Students participate in experiential exercises that provide them with the opportunity to learn critical skills needed to improve teamwork and be effective organizational members.

 

IAFF 6503 Role of the Embassy in Foreign Policy

This course is designed to familiarize students with the structure of the embassy, its authorities both formal and informal, and its activities in support of U.S. interests. Ambassadors manage their embassies through a Country Team, a team that includes the heads of sections and the heads of other U.S. Government agencies represented in the embassy. The Country Team serves as the corporate management of the mission. During the course, each student will assume the role of one member of the country team. The professor will act as an ambassador. In this role-playing model, students will deal with hypothetical issues (based on real events) thereby developing an appreciation and understanding of how an embassy operates.

 

IAFF 6503 Gender Advisor: Roles & Skills

This course will cover the various roles, responsibilities, and necessary skills of a Gender Advisor in multilateral, bilateral, and international development organizations. The course will provide a comprehensive overview of how the latest tools, resources, and practices should be applied in development work. The course will translate the new and evolving set of policies on gender integration/mainstreaming into meaningful practice to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of institutions and organizations seeking to promote peace, security and development through gender mainstreaming of policies, programs, and projects in developing countries as well as leading organizations to improve their internal gender equality.

 

IAFF 6503 Ethics in International Affairs

This is a course in applied ethics, dealing with questions and problems of ethics that occur in international affairs.  Among other concerns, this includes such issues as human rights both national and international, international business, war, globalization, and global assistance and humanitarian intervention(s). We will discuss and analyze, and attempt to find ways and/or methods or steps or techniques to solve ethical disputes and issues that arise in international affairs.

 

IAFF 6503 Gender Monitoring & Evaluation

 

IAFF 6503 Introduction to Gaming & Simulations

Introductions to Gaming and Simulations provides first-hand experience in scenario and gaming analysis. The course specifically addresses the fundamentals of game development and employment based on government and industry best practices. Through lectures, readings, in-class exercises, and group assignments students will build the repertoire of skills needed to create high-impact games and simulations while simultaneously honing their ability to review and judge gaming proposals.

 

IAFF 6503 Mobile Phones for International Development

The mobile phone is rapidly bringing communication to the most remote areas of the world. NGOs, governments and companies alike are beginning to realize the potential of this ubiquitous tool to address social challenges. This course will explore successful applications that facilitate economic transactions, support public health campaigns and connect learners to educational content. It will also critically engage with issues of equity, privacy, and access. Participants can expect a dynamic and practical learning environment with a number of real-world examples and case studies.

 

IAFF 6503 Congress and Foreign Policy

The class will examine the ways in which Congress and the Executive branch interact to shape U.S. foreign and national security policy. The class will consider practical details such as how Congress is structured, and how the budget and appropriations process that funds U.S. international spending operates. It will also look at the political imperatives that influence how members of Congress and their staffers develop their views on U.S. foreign policy. After an informal introduction to how Congress works, the focus will be on real-world case studies and hands-on simulations, with in-class exercises that will permit students to better understand what role the Congress plays in determining U.S. foreign policy, how it does so, and why.

 

IAFF 6504 Intermediate Proficiency - Russian

 

IAFF 6504 Intermediate Proficiency - French

 

IAFF 6504 Intermediate Proficiency - Chinese

 

IAFF 6504 Intermediate Proficiency - Spanish

IAFF 6118 Human Rights: Narratives and Film

This course integrates the viewing of movies with the reading of individual narratives reflecting upon human rights in diverse contexts. The movies we will watch and the narratives we will read touch upon the three thematic concerns of the course:

1. Testimonies of survivors of human rights violations and descriptions of these violations and their human impact

2. Profiles of human rights defenders, their actions and achievements  

3. Popular movies addressing human rights and how human rights violations are represented in mainstream movies

We will watch some film selections and clips in class, but students will need to watch some of the movies on their own time as part of the coursework, alongside the course readings. Topics we will study include the Rwandan genocide against the Tutsi, the Holocaust of European Jewry, the Cambodian politicide, humanitarian aid activists and advocates, human rights defenders advancing rights to healthcare, women's rights, and the right to live free of poverty, the perspectives and lived experiences of children living on the streets, environmental activism and its impact on human rights fulfillment, and indigenous peoples and their struggles to secure their human rights and protect their lands and cultures.  

Registration restricted to graduate students or undergraduate students with junior/senior status.

 

IAFF 6118 Human Rights Successes

This course examines successful efforts to expand and deepen the respect, protection, and fulfillment of human rights globally. It focuses on efforts of organizing, advocacy, campaigning, political engagement, policy change, and education that have tangibly, substantially, and meaningfully advanced the practice and realization of human rights. It considers both historical and contemporary human rights advancements and addresses the dynamic nature of human rights protection and fulfillment. The course considers how and why these human rights efforts have been successful and what we can learn from and apply from them in seeking to further advance human rights. The full spectrum of human rights including civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights will be addressed in the course. 

Registration restricted to graduate students or undergraduate students with junior/senior status.

 

IAFF 6118 Women and Leadership in Africa

The course will provide a general understanding of the position and challenges of women in Africa as leaders at the community, society and national levels. Assessing the cultural environment, impediments/barriers and recognize the progress made (through various legal frameworks and policies), as well as opportunities. Ambassador MulaMula will share her practical experience over the years in various leadership positions in public service, as well as draw on living and current examples of women in politics(what it takes to win an election), conflict situations and transitional leadership. The objective is to create self-awareness, confidence, aspirations with clear goals, mindsets and overcome stereotypes of women and leadership.

Registration restricted to graduate students only.

 

IAFF 6118 Peacebuilding and Conflict Management

Peacebuilding emerged as a major field focused on post-conflict resolution and intrastate fragility after the Cold War. It has broadened significantly since – encompassing an array of interventions aimed at promoting social justice as the means of transforming societies toward permanent peaceful coexistence. Peacebuilders recognize that violence is part and parcel of war. And yet, the peacebuilding approach differentiates itself from disciplines such as war-and-conflict studies through its relatively greater emphasis on nonviolent and peaceful interventions to prevent or end conflict and to allow for sustained post-conflict peace.

The relevance of peacebuilding in today’s world is indisputable. If there is one lesson from the post-9/11 period, it is that use of military force alone is unable to bring peace to fragile environments featuring non-traditional enemies. Indeed, the inadequacy of use of force is widely recognized. Yet, states have struggled to implement coordinated, broader strategies that rely on nonviolent techniques. The situation needs peacebuilders – ones able to analyze the evolving nature of the threats to global security and offer out-of-the-box but realistic policy prescriptions that prioritize non-violent means of conflict resolution.

This course introduces the field of peacebuilding and conflict and aims to help students understand its theoretical and practical aspects. Students will be equipped to analyze the social and political dynamics of peace and conflict. They will learn about the importance of conflict analysis and the options for nonviolent responses to prevent and resolve conflicts and ensure sustainable post-conflict transformation. Case studies of real-world conflicts and problem-solving efforts by policy makers involved in conflict resolution will help students gain applied knowledge and understand the complexities and challenges practitioners face in their quest for peace. Students will be encouraged to apply a solution-oriented lens to identify means of overcoming the key challenges identified in the course.

Registration restricted to graduate students only.

 

IAFF 6118 Issues in Middle East Security

This course will make a session-long study of a single country of the student’s choice by examining the relationship between security and a range of social and political issues including democracy, demography, labor, religion, sectarianism, tribalism, natural resources, gender and youth issues, migration, current armed conflict, geopolitical analysis, and the local, regional and international security contexts. Driving questions will be the key domestic challenges that can lead to internal instability and the major sources of external security threats.

 

 

 

 

IAFF 6138 Development in the Age of Climate Change

Global environmental perils are among the most profound challenges facing humanity today. They not only undermine the quality of life for humankind, they also threaten to compromise the fundamental, organic infrastructure that supports all life on earth. This course introduces students to the sociopolitical dynamics of sustainable development in the age of climate change and the policies, practices and politics that drive it. It explores the causes of environmental harm and avenues of effective response. Furthermore, it examines key environmental challenges including water, food and agriculture, and climate change. Its overall aim is to familiarize students with the role power plays in the emergence and management of environmental problems and how power in turn is – or, alternatively, is not - exerted for sustainable development.

Registration restricted to graduate students only.

 

 

IAFF 6138 Development and Technology

This course will introduce students to the role of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) in achieving international development goals. Students will explore the opportunity technology plays as a catalyst in social impact and will explore practical implementations of technologies and analyze their overall utility in the sector. The course will analyze field based realities and explore the practically of technology as a solution for key challenges faced in the agriculture, health, gender and education sectors (among others).

Overall, students will take a holistic review of the international development sector and will review case-studies of ICT implementations across regions of interest including Africa, Asia and the Americas. Students will also have the opportunity to connect with leaders in the ICT4D sector as guest lecturers will be invited to explain their background and experience in the sector. 

Registration restricted to graduate students only.

 

 

IAFF 6138 Gender and Development

This graduate-level seminar will begin by examining the evolution of theoretical approaches regarding gender and development and the debates that have emerged over how to promote gender equity and rights across the gender spectrum. We will then consider some of the key issues in the field of gender and development and the challenges and successes that development practitioners have experienced in addressing gender inequalities. Throughout the course, we will seek to identify general patterns and lessons with broader applications as well as to recognize differences within and between societies. We will use a combination of academic sources, international development reports, and other materials produced by development practitioners to ground our discussions and study how organizations have sought to implement gender-sensitive approaches to development. The assignments are practical and relevant to professional work in the field of gender and development.

 

IAFF 6138 Deconstructing the Climate Change Conundrum

On the international stage, the Katowice Climate Change Conference held in Poland in 2018 provided ample testimony to the multiple challenges the international community faces in reaching its ambitious goals: keeping global warming at 1.5 degrees Celsius, adhering to common but differentiated responsibilities, pursuing policies and practices on the basis of the precautionary principles, and pouring hundreds of billions of dollars into mitigation and adaptation programs and projects annually. 

If looking at climate change more closely, what comes to light are a host of interdisciplinary challenges; the challenge to generate the best possible science to ensure that political and policy decision makers allocate the appropriate resources for climate-friendly programs and projects; to safeguard biodiversity and halt the rampant loss of biodiversity; to turn the fossil fuel-depended economy into a low carbon economy; to find an efficient and affordable replacement for the combustion engine; to provide access to renewable energy resources and incentivize energy efficiencies both in the commercial and domestic sphere; to capture greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and revitalize existing carbon sinks on land and on water; to make clean drinking water and sanitation available to everyone, to overhaul  industrial agriculture and its malign effects on the environment and ensure the safe supply of healthy and nutritious food; to respond to and preempt adverse climate change health impacts; and to provide secure and well-paying employment for people the world over.

The course will, with guest lecturers’ help and students’ inputs, deconstruct the interdisciplinary nature of the climate change challenge and, equipped with new insights, identify effective response mechanisms as well as formulate tentative recommendations for today’s political and policy decision makers.

Registration restricted to graduate students only.

 

IAFF 6138 Rule of Law & Anti-Corruption

Vice-President Biden during his first visit to Ukraine described corruption as the cancer of society. The same idea was picked up by former USAID Administrator Shah and State Department Assistant Secretary Nuland. There is a renewed effort by the foreign policy, national security and foreign assistance experts to understand the destabilizing role of corruption and to come up with solutions that counter corruption. Rampant corruption was one of the most important driving forces behind the Maidan in Ukraine and the Arab Spring uprising. Under the pressure from the Maidan and the civil society, the government of Ukraine recently adopted new anti-corruption legislation. In this class we will explore corruption as a mobilizing force in fragile societies and how anti-corruption can be integrated into sound development programming. A recent study by USAID has shown that most of the foreign assistance programs in the anticorruption arena concentrate on the rule of law activities. The weakness of the rule of law undermines the effectiveness of the democratic institutions and jeopardizes democratic transitions in the post-communist countries of Eastern Europe. How to better integrate the rule of law and anti-corruption into democratization assistance is not well-understood by development professionals. This class will work on honing a practical understanding of the theory of the rule of law, good governance and anti-corruption and the ways to design foreign assistance programs that address these functional areas in the context of democratic assistance in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union.

Registration restricted to graduate students only.

 

IAFF 6138 Democracy and Governance Development

This graduate seminar focuses on democracy and governance within the field of comparative politics, looking at these specific topics as they are applied to development. Rather than taking a specific, geographic focus, this course is organized to investigate substantive topics across the democracy and governance spectrum. A number of country-specific examples and cases will be explored to test the application of theories and to deepen students’ appreciation of the extent and limits of democracy and governance development.

Registration restricted to graduate students only.

 

IAFF 6138 Social Enterprise & Development

The future of successful business leaders will be defined by the ability to create, build and sustain organizations with and for mission and finance related returns. In light of changing organizational structures (from C corp. to B corp.), coupled with the growing focus on entrepreneurship and innovation, emerging leaders should be prepared to understand the core concepts of building a sustainable business and securing capital for impact. This course will engage students in understanding the core principles of social entrepreneurship, also known as the demand side of investing for impact. For students interested in pursuing careers in social finance, philanthropy, investment management, or responsible banking, this course is a must have.

Registration restricted to graduate students only.

 

IAFF 6138 Global Food Security

Today, of the world’s 7.3 billion people, about 1 billion live on less than $1.25 per day. 805 million - around one-tenth of the world's population - suffer from chronic hunger; they cannot afford 1,800 calories per day (not enough to carry out even a medium level of physical activity). An estimated 39 percent of the developing world’s children are stunted, and 2 billion people suffer from one or more micronutrient deficiencies. Paradoxically, some 1.4 billion people are overweight, of whom 500 million are obese. This collective crisis has devastating and far reaching effects. This course will examine how the many actors (both developing and developed countries) will meet the challenge of providing the world's growing population with a sustainable and secure supply of safe, nutritious and affordable quality food. The course will look at the institutions charged with this responsibility including the G7, the G20, the United Nations, and particularly the United Nations’ Committee on World Food Security; the Post-2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs-SDGs) Agenda; the U.S. Feed the Future Initiative and the G8 New Alliance for Food Security and Nutrition; national, regional and sub-regional policy environments; the role of trade and investment, including public-private partnerships; agricultural research (including plant biotechnology) and nutrition education; sustainable food systems and the environment; food security safety nets; food safety; volatile global food prices; sustainable fisheries; ocean acidification; land and water pollution; climate change; and more. The class is both highly participatory and interactive.

Registration restricted to graduate students only.

 

IAFF 6163 Transnational Security

This course focuses on transnational security issues and considers how many of these myriad challenges threats to global peace and security constitute. The combined effects of such transnational security issues such as drug, weapons, human trafficking, piracy, acts of terrorism, infectious disease, and deliberate environmental destruction, along with such critical enablers such as corruption, and money movements, are not strangers on the world stage. What is new is their global reach and destructive potential. As a result, these issues have made policy makers consider different conceptions of security and, at times, to move beyond sole considerations of state sovereignty into the realm of human security.

Registration restricted to graduate students only. This is offered on-campus and as a distance learning course.

 

IAFF 6165 Fundamentals of Intelligence

This course focuses on the craft of U.S. Intelligence and its role in national security policy. It will examine the changing organizational structure of the Intelligence Community, including its homeland security component; the Intelligence production cycle, including tasking, collection, analysis, covert action, and counterintelligence; and relations between the Intelligence and Policy communities.

Registration restricted to graduate students only.

 

IAFF 6171 Intro to Conflict Resolution

This course provides students with an introduction to the field of conflict analysis and resolution. It is intended to provide a solid foundation for further inquiry and application. The course will introduce students to the major concepts and issues currently animating the field, explore the main strategies for responding to conflicts, and help them recognize and critique the assumptions upon which these strategies rest. This course considers the “upper end” of the conflict spectrum, focusing on inter-state disputes, contemporary civil wars, complex political emergencies and other forms of organized violence. At the end of the course students should be acquainted with the nature of conflict resolution as a distinct theoretical and applied field of study and have some understanding of current thinking about major approaches to war prevention, mitigation, settlement, and post-war reconstruction projects. It will be useful for anyone with an interest in conflict resolution and management, including professionals in the fields of diplomacy, journalism, development assistance, humanitarian aid or international peacekeeping who wish to develop their knowledge of this important area.

 

IAFF 6173 Security and Development

With much of the world faced with recurrent crises, vulnerable communities in fragile environments struggle to build resiliency and achieve long-term sustainable development. International development actors strive to halt the deteriorating cycles of violence by reducing the adverse impact of a myriad of stressors, that if left unchecked leads to chronic conflict and or opportunities for violent extremism. This course begins by introducing development and how it seeks to strengthen fragile states, mitigate conflict, prevent violent extremism, and build the resilience of at-risk communities and institutions. Using a case study approach, the course will dive into specific examples of how development initiatives apply sectoral approaches to achieving sustainable outcomes in conflict and post-conflict settings. Students in this course will learn the fundamentals of navigating in insecure transitional environments. Employing a practical approach, the course will examine various actors and their roles and motivations on the ground, types of initiatives frequently implemented and funded by leading donors, how initiatives are monitored and evaluated to assess progress, and how development workers operate in insecure challenging contexts. This practical knowledge will be contextualized through prevalent literature on the subject.

Registration restricted to graduate students only. This is a distance learning course.

 

IAFF 6186 United States National Security

This course examines the problems and issues confronting American national security policymakers using a combination of empirical information and conceptual analysis. The course content includes conceptual definitions of national security, policymaking processes and debates, national security institutions and organizations, relationships between foreign, economic and defense policy, and civil-military relations. The course presumes familiarity with American politics and U.S. history and encourages students to keep up on relevant world events by reading legitimate news sources. At the end of the semester, students should be able to critically engage, understand, articulate and explain ideas and arguments about the U.S. national security process and the complexity of American strategic interests and decision-making processes.

Registration restricted to graduate students only.

 

IAFF 6186 Stabilization and Peacebuilding

This course aims to provide students with a solid introduction to the theory and practice of contemporary stabilization and reconstruction missions. It will help students analyze state fragility and failure, develop a shared understanding of the many elements and challenges in stabilization-reconstruction missions as well as well as basic requirements for a successful mission. Theories and concepts will be tested by examining disparate cases during the course.

Registration restricted to graduate students only.

 

IAFF 6186 International Organized Crime

This course will examine a variety of transnational organized criminal groups, their modus operandi, and their illicit activities. It also will focus on some domestic organized crime groups both to provide a depth of understanding of the operations of organized criminal activity in different countries, as well as to show how inroads might be made into domestic markets if done in cooperation with local groups.

Registration restricted to graduate students only.

 

IAFF 6186 US Grand Strategy

This course examines U.S. grand strategy, meaning the politico-military continuum of means and ends that the state employs to achieve security. The course first analyzes the concept of grand strategy: what it means, how it’s achieved and when it fails. The course then turns to causes of grand strategy—the international conditions, technological developments, geographic circumstances, domestic actors and ideological beliefs that shape strategic options. Finally, to make these concepts more concrete, the course examines U.S. grand strategy at two pivotal points in recent U.S. history: the early Cold War, when the United States introduced nuclear missiles into the military, and today.

Registration restricted to graduate students only.

 

IAFF 6186 Averting Failure in Foreign Policy

This course is designed to be a self-paced individual and group learning experience. Each week will offer a brief lecture or set of lectures highlighting the core components of any successful foreign policy analysis. Lectures will be reinforced by a variety of weekly reading and media assignments, ungraded open-book quizzes, contributions to a class discussion board, and policy analysis memos. The final policy analysis memo will incorporate and integrate the knowledge you have gleaned throughout the semester. The early weeks of the course will draw attention to the ways in which causal clarity, chronological appraisal, and the systematic assessment of evidence can avert foreign policy failures. The later weeks will build on this framework and apply it to a broad range of classic and contemporary case studies. Throughout the course we will illustrate how this practical analytic strategy can be used to impede the influence of individual and group judgment biases, governmental structural factors, and domestic political processes, and thus enhance both foreign policy analysis and foreign policy advice.

 

IAFF 6186 Insurgency and Counterinsurgency

This course provides students with an introduction to the nature of insurgency, some key historical examples of how insurgencies were defeated, and analytical frameworks and tools for understanding and countering insurgencies. It is intended to provide a solid foundation for further inquiry into related topics such as irregular warfare, security and development, stabilization and peacebuilding, responses to terrorism, and conflict resolution. The course examines the multi-disciplinary nature of insurgencies, and introduces students to the major concepts and issues of the topic, explores the main types of insurgencies, and analyzes in depth a number of strategic cases of counterinsurgency to help students understand the complexity and the variety of this form of warfare in the modern world. The course provides key frameworks for analysis for the study of insurgency and explores possible solutions to a number of current conflicts.    

 

IAFF 6186 Political Violence and Terrorism

Civil wars, processes of organized political violence, and terrorist campaigns have replaced inter-state wars as the main source of battle deaths and forceful displacement of persons since the end of World War II. These forms of organized violence have determined the fate and legitimacy of numerous regimes in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Balkans and eastern Europe, albeit they have also had significant political impact in North America and Europe. Even more important, these forms of violence affected whole populations, generating countless victims that, more often than not, were civilian and innocent.

The goal of this class is to provide the students with rigorous means to understand the relationship between politics and violence within internal conflict and terrorist campaigns. It will introduce students to both historical case studies, and to the theoretical approaches that try to leverage social, political, economic, and ideological dimensions as explanatory and interpretative tools.

The historical case studies will include examples from around the world, including North America, Latin America, Europe, Africa and the Middle East. We will study their initial causes, violent struggle, and eventual conclusion reached by either peace accords or military victories. Books, novels (excerpts), films, journal articles, and data sets will constitute our sources.

We will have a brief political theory introduction to the debate on the relationship between political power and violence (i.e. “political power grows out the barrel of the guns” vs “politics are a dialogue while violence is the absence of a dialogue”). The theoretical approaches will follow the recent debates within the academic literature on “Civil Wars”. They will offer both qualitative and quantitative, individual (i.e. rational choice) and collective (i.e. contentious politics), political, economic, military, and cultural avenues to make sense of these very often murky cases of political violence and terrorism.

Registration restricted to graduate students only.

 

IAFF 6186 Peace and Conflict in Africa

This advanced seminar is designed to enable students to understand, analyze, and effectively communicate about contemporary African conflict dynamics and to sharpen their ability to craft policy and program recommendations for strengthening peace and security on the continent. The course combines the perspectives of both theory and practice, conflict analysis and the art of peacebuilding, and will survey prominent conflict case studies and emerging trends, such as popular protests, violent extremism, and transnationalism, as well as the actors, institutions, groups, and drivers that characterize them, in order to develop a conceptual framework to analyze and transform armed conflict in Africa.

Registration restricted to graduate students only.

 

IAFF 6186 Military Power and Effectiveness

This course explores what enables some states to harness their capacity effectively to execute state policy. The majority of this course assesses the theoretical and empirical literature, classifying how various works define military power and effectiveness, what level of analysis they address, and how well they explain power and effectiveness. We will devote most of our attention to conventional military power and operations, but will also address counterinsurgency and the power and effectiveness of rebel organizations.

 

IAFF 6222 Strategic Leadership Seminar

Registration restricted to graduate students only. This is a distance learning course.

 

IAFF 6501 Quant. Analysis in International Affairs Pract

This course will introduce graduate students to methods and tools for the collection, management, analysis, and presentation of qualitative data in international development settings, thereby preparing them to contribute, as qualitative researchers, to the further improvement and expansion of "legitimate practice" in development research.

Registration restricted to graduate students only.

 

IAFF 6502 Cross Cultural Communications

The ability to communicate effectively and sensitively across cultures has become both more critical and more difficult in today’s global environment. The focus of the course will be development of cross-cultural communications/awareness, management, and negotiation skills. National, regional and universal levels of culture and communications will be explored. Course methodologies will include case studies, videos, simulation, and assessment instruments relative to communicating and working in multicultural settings. The course also uses a comparativist approach to flesh out the significance and implications of cultural underpinnings, factors, and variables necessary for successful communication between cultures and individuals in an increasingly globalized world.

 

IAFF 6502 Formal Briefing

Of the many modes of communication in Washington, perhaps the most common is the formal briefing. Consequently, the ability to conceptualize, build, and deliver briefings is a valuable skill in both private and public sectors. This course will provide students the opportunity to learn: (1) public speaking techniques; (2) the various types of briefings; (3) how to structure and organize each; (4) different briefing venues, varied audiences and how to work with them; (5) the elements of proper delivery and how to develop a personally tailored briefing style. Students will design, build, and present one briefing twice. The first briefing will be a draft and the second a final.

 

IAFF 6502 Leadership and Teamwork

This course explores the dynamics of teambuilding, communication, and leadership that will increase managerial effectiveness. Topics include: communication and conflict, decision-making and problem-solving, teams vs. groups, group dynamics, consensus, team building and leadership. Students participate in experiential exercises that provide them with the opportunity to learn critical skills needed to improve teamwork and be effective organizational members.

 

IAFF 6502 Deconstructing Disinformation

A functional democracy requires the public to trust the information they rely on to make decisions. While numerous types of problematic information – including disinformation, misinformation, and propaganda – have always existed, networked technologies make it easier for media manipulators to spread inaccurate, misleading, and hateful information. In 2018, thirteen Russians were indicted for waging a three-year disinformation campaign to disrupt American democracy. Non-state actors also sought to incite partisanship and strategically suppress participation in the 2016 election. Extremist groups and partially automated accounts (“bots”) run by foreign state groups both propagated false rumors and conspiracies after a school shooting to shape the political reaction. The stock market lost over $130B in 2013 when a false tweet claimed that Barack Obama was injured in an explosion. And researchers are now confirming common sense about such damaging gossip: false information spreads faster than the truth.

This course will use domestic and international case studies to critically examine the key components of disinformation, including content creation, algorithmic amplification, normalization and sense-making. It will then analyze potential interventions by governments, technology companies, and civil society organizations. In addition to deconstructing the problem of disinformation and critically analyzing potential solutions, students will learn how to conduct scenario planning exercises.

 

IAFF 6502 Future of Tech for International Development

The mobile phone is rapidly bringing communication to the most remote areas of the world. NGOs, governments and companies alike are beginning to realize the potential of this ubiquitous tool to address a variety of global challenges. This one-credit weekend skills course will explore successful applications that facilitate economic transactions, transform agricultural processes, support public health campaigns and connect learners to educational content. It will also critically engage with issues of equity, privacy and access. Participants can expect a dynamic learning environment with a number of real-world case studies, custom animations and video tutorials, and practical simulations to apply new skills and strategies.

 

IAFF 6502 Negotiating Skills

This course is designed to enhance the participants’ negotiation and leadership skills for managing differences between individuals and groups. Class members will learn how to handle two and multiparty negotiations, and analyze the importance of empathy and creative option design. The course will be a blend of skill building exercises and discussions about the behavior of individuals to understand the negotiation dynamics. The course builds on the concepts of interest-based negotiation developed by Roger Fisher at the Harvard Program on Negotiation.

 

IAFF 6502 Writing in International Affairs

Successful international affairs professionals inform and influence through clear and concise writing. Effective writers create a foundation for knowledge, decision, and action by efficiently providing context and logically presenting relevant evidence. The ability to anticipate a leader's needs and identify challenges, opportunities, and options distinguishes policy from academic writing. In this course, we will use short written assignments, guided discussions, tailored feedback, and exercises to hone the skills of accuracy, brevity, clarity, and readability. While this is a writing course, students select a current policy challenge to focus on. Successful students will leave this class with an improved ability to analyze problems and craft written products suitable for policy leaders. Specific skills will include the ability to asses confusing and conflicting sources, explain complex problems, develop recommendations, start with your bottom line, and write with proper syntax and grammar. Students who apply themselves will leave the course with a high-quality writing sample to complement their job search.

 

IAFF 6502 US Foreign Assistance

Why does the U.S. give foreign assistance? How much does it cost? What does the U.S. spend foreign assistance on? This course will explore these questions and cover the way the federal budget process is supposed to work and the way it actually does work, with a specific focus on the U.S. foreign assistance budget implemented by the U.S. Department of State and U.S. Agency for International Development. Goals of the Course: · Develop an understanding of what happens behind the scenes to develop the President’s Budget · Explore the responsibilities of the Office of Management and Budget and the Department of State’s Office of U.S. Foreign Assistance Resources in formulating and executing the foreign assistance budget for the Department of State and U.S. Agency for International Development · Understand the role of Congress in the federal budget, with a focus on the appropriations process as it relates to State/USAID foreign assistance · Learn how to formulate a piece of the foreign assistance budget and how to analyze an appropriations bill · Better comprehend today’s complicated fiscal environment and its impact on the federal budget.

 

IAFF 6503 Leadership and Teamwork

This course explores the dynamics of teambuilding, communication, and leadership that will increase managerial effectiveness. Topics include: communication and conflict, decision-making and problem-solving, teams vs. groups, group dynamics, consensus, team building and leadership. Students participate in experiential exercises that provide them with the opportunity to learn critical skills needed to improve teamwork and be effective organizational members.

 

IAFF 6503 Mediation

Third-parties are increasingly being used by people in conflict, both domestically and internationally, to help them resolve their differences. Whether providing a space for belligerents to reach a peace agreement, facilitating a contentious public policy debate on the Hill, or helping departments work more effectively together, this interactive skills building course will teach you how to harness conflictual energy and transform it into collaboration. Mediation is an impartial, voluntary and confidential process that facilitates problem-solving and helps parties to a conflict develop solutions that meet everyone’s needs. In this highly experiential course, students will be introduced to the basic principles of mediation; learn how to engage the parties in a conflict and set up the mediation space; how to listen and gather information by disaggregating positional statements; framing and listing problems to resolve; brainstorming and developing solutions; and writing an agreement.

 

IAFF 6503 Intro to Gaming & Simulation

The course will review collaborative analysis techniques that have been developed to game out or simulate issues and situations of significance. The course presents an overview of public and private sector applications of these methods for analysis and training. It will also provide detailed descriptions of various approaches and their conceptual underpinnings. The course is divided into three sections: familiarization, experiential learning, and design – the last focusing on application. Working in teams, students will select and apply one of the identified methodologies to the analysis of a specific topic. Topics are subject to instructor approval. The course will consist of lectures, a limited number of readings, and a heavy emphasis on student.

 

IAFF 6503 Formal Briefing

Of the many modes of communication in Washington, perhaps the most common is the formal briefing. Consequently, the ability to conceptualize, build, and deliver briefings is a valuable skill in both private and public sectors. This course will provide students the opportunity to learn: (1) public speaking techniques; (2) the various types of briefings; (3) how to structure and organize each; (4) different briefing venues, varied audiences and how to work with them; (5) the elements of proper delivery and how to develop a personally tailored briefing style. Students will design, build, and present one briefing twice. The first briefing will be a draft and the second a final.

 

IAFF 6503 Cross Cultural Communications

The ability to communicate effectively and sensitively across cultures has become both more critical and more difficult in today’s global environment. The focus of the course will be development of cross-cultural communications/awareness, management, and negotiation skills. National, regional and universal levels of culture and communications will be explored. Course methodologies will include case studies, videos, simulation, and assessment instruments relative to communicating and working in multicultural settings. The course also uses a comparativist approach to flesh out the significance and implications of cultural underpinnings, factors, and variables necessary for successful communication between cultures and individuals in an increasingly globalized world.

 

IAFF 6503 Political Analysis

The objective of the course is to improve each student's ability to analyze a complex policy situation and craft a paper dealing with some aspect of that situation.

 

IAFF 6505 Senior Manager Thesis

 

IAFF 6505 Senior Manager Course

 

IAFF 6515 Graduate Internship / Intl Affairs

Limited to Elliott School M.A. degree candidates. Internship and research paper involving experience at an international organization or with international issues.

Departmental approval required to register.

 

IAFF 6517 Independent Study and Research

Faculty led independent study or faculty led research, must be approved by instructor before enrolling.

Departmental approval required to register. Register for this course in the ESIA advising office.

 

IAFF 6521 US Foreign Policy Summer Program: US Foreign Policy in a Global Era

Participants in the summer program will be briefed at key institutions that shape U.S. Foreign policy. In past years students have visited: • U.S. Government Agencies: U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee, the U.S. Department of State, the Pentagon • Foreign embassies: Saudi Arabia and Israel • International organizations: United Nations, the World Bank, International Monetary Fund • Think tanks: The Brookings Institution, the Woodrow Wilson Center, Center for New American Security • Media outlets: The Washington Post, Associated Press, Al-Jazeera, National Public Radio • Interests groups: peace groups, business groups and ethnic lobbies Participants will have access to the libraries at The George Washington University, the National Security Archive, the Library of Congress, and other research libraries in Washington, DC. In addition to attending lectures, all participants work on group projects and write a policy memorandum on a U.S. foreign policy issue of their choice. After the two-week program is completed, participants write a substantive research paper on U.S. foreign policy. Upon successful completion of the program, participants earn academic credit from The George Washington University.

Departmental approval required to register. Contact [email protected] for more information.

 

IAFF 6998 & IAFF 6999 Thesis

Open to Elliott School M.A. candidates who have selected the thesis option.
Departmental approval required to register.