Inclusive Teaching Resources
Inclusive Teaching Statement
The Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Council, with contributions of current students and faculty, has created an Elliott School Inclusive Teaching Statement. This was thoughtfully created to support all of our faculty members who are expected to practice inclusive teaching as outlined in this statement and to include a stated commitment in every syllabus.
Inclusive teaching encompasses four components:
- How we teach;
- What we teach, in terms of diverse perspectives and intentional inclusion of issues of social equity as they relate to the subject matter;
- Where we draw our pedagogical materials; and
- How we support constructive and supportive student engagement.
The full Elliott School Inclusive Teaching Statement outlines each of these four areas, along with initial resources to support understanding and operationalization of these inclusive teaching components.
"We seek not only to reflect American society, but also to serve as a model for proactively engaging with difference, with respect, dignity, openness, and acceptance, recognizing that diversity reflects the society in which we live and can be its greatest strength."
Racial Diversity in International Affairs
Our commitment to diversity, equity, and inclusion includes our dedication to anti-racist work. Elliott School faculty members developed the beginnings of a collection focused on Racial Diversity in International Affairs.
- International Relations Theory
- Kelebogile Zvobgo and Meredith Loken, “Why Race Matters in International Relations,” Foreign Policy, June 19, 2020.
- Sankaran Krishna, Race, Amnesia, and the Education of International Relations, 2001, Alternatives, 26(4): 373-376.
“In thinking of what it is that allows these numerous and violent encounters between different peoples to fall out of the history of international relations, it becomes obvious that a certain principle of abstraction is at work here, centering on the concept of "sovereignty." Wars are defined exclusively as the acts of sovereign powers on each other in a tradition that goes back a long way in IR discourse, whereas the impressive list above constitutes merely encounters between various forms of quasi states, native principalities, warlords, tribes, territories, and puppet regimes, on the one hand, and a sovereign state, on the other. Such encounters can hence be excised from the genealogy of international relations.” P. 405.
- Errol Henderson, “Hidden in Plain Sight: Racism in International Relations Theory,” Cambridge Review of International affairs Vol. 26, March 2013.
- Sampson, Aaron. 2002. Tropical anarchy: Waltz, Wendt, and the way we imagine international politics. Alternatives, 27: 429–457.
- Foreign Policy General
- Travis L. Adkins and Judd Devermont, “The Legacy of American Racism at Home and Abroad,” Foreign Policy, June 19, 2020.
- Christopher Richardson, “The State Department was Designed to Keep African Americans Out,” The New York Times, 23 June 2020.
- Tamara Cofman Wittes, “Promoting Human Rights Abroad When They’re Being Trampled at Home,” Brookings, June 3, 2020.
- Martin Luther King, Jr. “Beyond Vietnam,” April 4, 1967 Speech transcript.
- Climate Change and Environment
- Misti Crane, “Low-Income, Black Neighborhoods Still Hit Hard by Air Pollution,” Science News, 10 August 2019
- Calvin Cupini, “Air Quality Is Worse on African American Neighborhoods. This Community Is Fighting Pollution with Data,” Discover, 20 February 2020.
- Sidney Fussell, “COVID-19 Flares Up in America’s Polluted ‘Sacrifice’ Zones,” Wired, 26 May 2020.
- Bill McKibben, “Racism, Police Violence, and the Climate Are Not Separate Issues,” The New Yorker, 4 June 2020.
- Video: “African Americans Disproportionately Affected by Climate Change,” ABC Boston, June 19, 2020.
- Malkia Amala Cyril, “Black America’s State of Surveillance,” The Progressive, 30 March 2015.
- Maurizio Santamicone, “Is Artificial Intelligence Racist? Racial and Gender Bias in AI” Medium, 2 April 2019.
- Wired, “Edward Snowden on Protecting Activists Against Surveillance,” 18 September 2018.
- Doris Marie Provinde, “Institutional Racism in Enforcing Immigration Law,” Norteamerica, Vol. 8 Special Issue 2013.
- Mark D. Ramirez and David A.M. Peterson, Ignored Racism: White Animus Toward Latinos, Cambridge University Press, June 2020.
- Sarah Fine, “Immigration and Discrimination,” in Sarah Fine and Lea Ypi eds., Migration in Political Theory: The Ethics of Movement and Membership (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016), 125-49
- International Development and Humanitarian Assistance
- Uma Kothari, “An Agenda for Thinking about ‘Race’ in Development,” Progress in Development Studies 6, 1(2006) pp. 9-23.
- Messay Kebede, “African Development and the Primacy of Mental Decolonization,” Africa Development, Vol. 29 No. 1 (2005).
- The Guardian, “The Aid Sector Must Do More To Tackle Its White Supremacy Problem,” 15 June 2020.
- Lauren Reese, “Beyond Lip Service: Tackling Racism in Your Development Organization,” 17 June 2020, The New Humanitarian.
- Roth, Silke (2012). “Professionalisation Trends and Inequality: Experiences and practices in aid relationships,” Third World Quarterly, 33(8), 1459-1474.
- Barnett, Michael (2020). “The Humanitarian Global Colour Line,” (Blog) ALNAP.
- Ali, Degan and Marie-Rose Romain Murphy (2020). “Black Lives matter is also a reckoning for foreign aid and international NGOs,” (Blog) Open Democracy, July 19.
- Video: The New Humanitarian (2020) “Rethinking Humanitarianism in the midst of #BlackLivesMatter and COVID-19” Approximately 2 hours.
- Leadership and Ethics
- James Joseph, Saved for a Purpose: A Journey from Private Virtues to Public Values, Duke University Press, 2015.
- Inés Valdez, Transnational Cosmopolitanism: Kant, DuBois, and Justice as a Political Craft (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019)
- Caroline Mala Corbin, Terrorists Are Always Muslim but Never White, Fordham Law Review, 2017.
- Vito D’Orazio and Idean Salehyan, “Who Is A Terrorist? Ethnicity, Group Affiliation, and Understandings of Political Violence,” International Interactions, Vol. 44 (6) Nov. 2018, pp. 1017-1039.
- (about White Nationalist terror) CSIS, The Escalating Terrorism Problem in the United States, June 17, 2020.
- Mahmood, Omar S. “Boko Haram and al-Shabaab: Adaptable Criminal Financing amid Expanded Terror,” in Thachuk, Kimberley L. and Lal, Rollie eds., Terrorist Criminal Enterprises: Financing Terrorism through Organized Crime, (Westport, CT.: Praeger, 2018), pp. 95-115.
- Drug Trafficking
- The Sentencing Project, “Criminal Justice Facts.”
- Cohen, Andrew. “How White Users Made Heroin a Public Health Problem,” TheAtlantic.com, August 12, 2015.
- Human Trafficking
- Prendergast, John and Sasha Lezhnev “From Mine to Mobile Phone: The Conflict Minerals Supply Chain (PDF)” The Enough Project: The Project to End Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity 10 November 2009.
- Nadia Murad, The Last Girl, Tim Duggan Books, 2018.
- Policy Analysis
- K. Steven Brown, Kilolo Kijakazi, Charmaine Runes, and Margery Austin Turner, “Confronting Structural Racism in Research and Policy Analysis: Charting a Course for Policy Research Institutions (PDF),” The Urban Institute, February 2019.
- Frantz Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth, Richard Philcox trans. (New York: Grove Press, 2004)
- Adom Getachew, Worldmaking After Empire: The Rise and Fall of Self-Determination (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2019)
- Catherine Lu, “Colonialism as Structural Injustice: Historical Responsibility and Contemporary Redress,” The Journal of Political Philosophy 19, 3 (2011): 261-81
- Laura Valentini, “On the Distinctive Procedural Wrong of Colonialism,” Philosophy & Public Affairs 43, 4 (2015): 312-31
- Lea Ypi, “What’s Wrong with Colonialism,” Philosophy & Public Affairs 41, 2 (2013): 158-91
- National Identity
- Desmond Jagmohan, “Between Race and Nation: Marcus Garvey and the Politics of Self-Determination,” Political Theory 8, 3 (2020): 271-302
- International Law
- Martti Koskenniemi, The Gentle Civilizer of Nations: The Rise and Fall of International Law 1870-1960 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001)
- Makau Mutua “What is TWAIL?” Proceedings of the Annual Meeting (American Society of International Law) 94 (2000): 31-40, with comment by Antony Anghie
- Jennifer Pitts, Boundaries of the International: Law and Empire (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2018)
- Jennifer Pitts, A Turn to Empire: The Rise of Imperial Liberalism in Britain and France (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2006)
The Gender Analysis Toolkit
The GEIA Gender Analysis List is a resource for Elliott School faculty to incorporate gender analysis and feminist theory in their course curriculum. Outside of GEIA courses, there is a gap in knowledge regarding the application of gender to international affairs and related fields of study. This document provides foundational knowledge for faculty to reinforce the importance of gender to the study of international affairs and subsequently foster a theoretical understanding of critical feminist theory among students.
The concept of gender attempts to capture the complexities of what it means to become socially identified along sex-gender lines. Gender is most often premised on a heteronormative binary of male and female, which is increasingly challenged to make room for recognition of transgender and intersex identities.
Generally, the concept of gender has been used to describe the set of socio-cultural behaviors, characteristics and expectations associated with being male or female. It captures how physiologically and biologically different bodies are ascribed social identities. Gender refers to the social differences that are ascribed to males and females, that are learned, and that are variable across cultures and that can change over time (e.g. girl v. woman). One’s gender and gendered identity influences the freedoms, obstacles, opportunities, constraints, and levels of power available in the public and private sphere.
Gender is a category of analysis. IT has been used to describe attributes and identities of individuals; as an organizing principle of society and social relations; and as a mode or aspect of relation i.e. the inter-relational connections or dynamics between men and women, between men, and between women. Gender describes the codes of conduct for a man or a woman, how these identities are defined and regulated, negotiated and normalized. It helps to analytically discern how power differentials are evolved on the basis of gendered identities and expectations. It captures how and why inequalities exist between different genders, e.g. between men and women, between men, between women, and between variant sexual and gendered identities. The concept should be used and pplies in ways that illuminate the subjectivity of one’s gender, as well as the complexities of gender and sexual identities. IT also is increasingly used as a verb, reflecting the deepening understanding of the concept of gender as capturing ongoing and evolving processes, such as identity development, rather than gender as a static category or identity.
Sex refers to the biological characteristics that categorize someone as either female of male. It is linked to the physiological and biological aspects of being identified as male or female.
The concept of “sex” can also be socially constructed, i.e., the idea that there are only two sexes, and that we must fit into either one, is a socially constructed idea. This is evidenced through the existence of “intersex” individuals who may have physiological or biological sexual characteristics that may not be the assumed standard for male or female, or that entail both male and female characteristics.
Is considered to be a theory or a perspective or methodology of research or analysis that analyzes or makes visible characteristics that influence identity and status. Intersectionality is a means of analysis that accounts for how markers of identity come together, intersect or interact to influence one’s overall perceived identity and status, and the opportunities and constraints that these intersecting features embody. These markers include race, class, age, ethnicity, bodily abilities and sexual orientation. Intersectionality considers these characteristics in terms of how they determine power and power relations. Its mode of analysis demonstrates how systems of power based on individual characteristics cannot be considered in isolation from one another.
The (often) systematic, disadvantageous treatment of a person on the basis of their gender. This discriminatory treatment or behavior denies them their rights and equal access to opportunities and resources.
Equality of opportunities and outcomes in life available to all.
The equivalence in life outcomes for all, recognizing people’s different needs and interests, and requiring a redistribution of power and resources to overcome disparities.
Gender-Based Violence (GBV)
An umbrella term describing forms of physical, sexual, economic, socio-cultural, and emotional violence that are enacted and experienced on the basis of gender inequalities, gender relations and gendered identities. It encompasses threats, exploitation and violent acts occurring on an isolated or recurring basis. While most commonly experienced by females, GBV is also experienced by males and occurs throughout the life-cycle. GBV derives from power differentials associated with gendered identities, roles and expectations and reinforced inequalities and differentials in power. GBV affects the physical and psychological health and well-being of those affected and has detrimental impacts at wider family, community, and societal levels.
- Key Concepts
What is gender analysis?
Gender analysis is a systematic analytical process used to identify, understand, and describe gender differences and the relevance of gender in a specific context. Such analysis typically involves examining the differential impact of…policies and programs on women and men, and may include the collection of sex-disaggregated data or gender sensitive data. Gender analysis examines the different roles, rights, and opportunities of men and women as well as relations between then. It also identifies disparities, examines why such disparities exist, determines whether they are a concern, and looks at how they can be addressed.
Why is gender analysis important?
Gender is increasingly recognized as a critical concept in fully understanding processes of globalization, international development, humanitarian crises, violent extremism, war and peace-building. Gender is central to how societies are structured and the roles and responsibilities of women and men as well as the valuing of girls and boys and how they are positioned within the family, community and broader society. These demarcations of power lead to the creation of social and gender norms such as expectations that women will become mothers, careers and peacemakers and boys will become fathers, leaders and soldiers.
Worldwide, efforts by armed groups to undermine women’s rights, including the sexual enslavement of women and girls, is a common thread running through global conflicts and terrorism. Other global issues include the persistent gender gap in completion of education; the acute impact of climate change on female smallholder farmers; and women’s absence from formal peace processes and what this means in the creation of sustainable peace. To understand issues of conflict and peace we need to analyze them from a gender perspective as well as through an intersectionality lens. We need all genders in this conversation to deepen our understandings and to create more equal, just and peaceful societies.
What is gender mainstreaming?
A policy-related institutional strategy that aims to bring about gender equality as a result of an institution’s operations and work. Gender mainstreaming enables an institution to bring a gender perspective to all aspects of its policy and operations.
- Gender and International Studies
Purpose of Study
Excerpt from “The Importance of Teaching Gender in International Relations Classrooms” by Elizabeth Weingarten:
“Gender dynamics influence everything from peace processes to terrorism recruitment strategies. Thegreatest predictor social science has for a nation's security and stability, it turns out, is how it treats its women.
Despite these considerations, my colleagues and I at New America have found that many national security policymakers don't see gender as relevant to their work, in part because many didn't really know what gender meant when it wasn't used in reference to gender representation—making sure there are women at the table.
That may be because professors who teach security and gender courses—and schools that prioritize those courses—are still in the minority. In our new research, we found that many professors in the field see gender as irrelevant to their course material, and that others had no idea how to begin teaching the subject. We also found that both male and female students were eager for more gender content.”
Foundational Gender Policies
Feminist Foreign Policy Frameworks
- “Defining Feminist Foreign Policy (PDF)” by Lyric Thompson and Rachel Clement
- United States
by J. Ann Tickner
Tickner is a founder of feminist international relations as a field of study. Her book includes her reformulation of Hans Morgenthau’s six principles of political realism using feminist theory.
by Valerie M. Hudson, Donna Lee Bowen, and Perpetua Lynne Nelson
“Incorporating research findings spanning a variety of social science disciplines and comprehensive empirical data detailing the status of women around the globe, the book shows that female subordination functions almost as a curse upon nations. A society’s choice to subjugate women has significant negative consequences: worse governance, worse conflict, worse stability, worse economic performance, worse food security, worse health, worse demographic problems, worse environmental protection, and worse social progress. Yet despite the pervasive power of social and political structures that subordinate women, history―and the data―reveal possibilities for progress. The First Political Order shows that when steps are taken to reduce the hold of inequitable laws, customs, and practices, outcomes for all improve. It offers a new paradigm for understanding insecurity, instability, autocracy, and violence, explaining what the international community can do now to promote more equitable relations between men and women and, thereby, security and peace. With comprehensive empirical evidence of the wide-ranging harm of subjugating women, it is an important book for security scholars, social scientists, policy makers, historians, and advocates for women worldwide.”
- Gender and Development
The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, adopted by all United Nations Member States in 2015, provides a shared blueprint for peace and prosperity for people and the planet, now and into the future. At its heart are the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which are an urgent call for action by all countries - developed and developing - in a global partnership. They recognize that ending poverty and other deprivations must go hand-in-hand with strategies that improve health and education, reduce inequality, and spur economic growth – all while tackling climate change and working to preserve our oceans and forests.
An estimated 303,000 women around the world died due to complications of pregnancy and childbirth in 2015. Almost all of these deaths occurred in low- and middle-income countries, and almost two thirds of those were in sub-Saharan Africa. These deaths are preventable with appropriate management and care. Globally in 2018, 81 percent of births took place with the assistance of a skilled birth attendant, a significant improvement from 69 per cent in 2012. Coverage of skilled birth attendants in 2018 was only 59 per cent in sub-Saharan Africa.
The under-5 mortality rate fell to 39 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2017, a 6.7 percent reduction from 42 deaths in 2015, and an overall reduction of 49 per cent from 77 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2000. The total number of under-5 deaths dropped to 5.4 million in 2017 from 9.8 million in 2000. Still, most of these deaths were from preventable causes and almost half, or 2.5 million, occurred in the first month of life – the most crucial period for child survival. The global neonatal mortality rate has continued to decline after a long downward trend from 31 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2000 to 18 in 2017, a 41 per cent reduction.
Immunization saves millions of lives and is widely recognized as one of the world’s most successful and cost-effective health interventions. Coverage of the required three doses of the vaccine that prevents diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis increased from 72 per cent in 2000 to 85 per cent in 2015 and has remained unchanged between 2015 and 2017. An estimated 19.9 million children did not receive the vaccines during the first year of life, putting them at serious risk of these potentially fatal diseases. The global coverage of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, which has the potential to significantly reduce deaths in children under age of 5, has yet to reach 50 per cent. Two doses of the measles vaccine are required to prevent the disease and the illnesses, disabilities and deaths caused by complications associated with it. Coverage with the second dose of measles vaccine increased from 59 per cent in 2015 to 67 per cent in 2017, but that is still insufficient to prevent this highly contagious disease.
Expanding access to modern contraceptive methods is essential to ensuring universal access to sexual and reproductive health-care services. Globally, the proportion of women of reproductive age (15 to 49 years old) who have their need for family planning satisfied with modern contraceptive methods has continued to increase slowly, from 74 per cent in 2000 to 76 per cent in 2019.
Adolescent fertility declined from 56 births per 1,000 adolescent women in 2000 to 45 births in 2015 and 44 births in 2019. The level of adolescent fertility has remained high in sub-Saharan Africa, at 101 births per 1,000 adolescent women.
Some 750 million adults – two thirds of them women – remained illiterate in 2016.
SDG 5: Gender Equality
While some indicators of gender equality are progressing, such as a significant decline in the prevalence of female genital mutilation and early marriage, the overall numbers continue to be high. Moreover, insufficient progress on structural issues at the root of gender inequality, such as legal discrimination, unfair social norms and attitudes, decision-making on sexual and reproductive issues and low levels of political participation, are undermining the ability to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 5.
Recent data from 106 countries show that 18 per cent of ever-partnered women and girls aged 15 to 49 have experienced physical and/or sexual partner violence in the previous 12 months. The prevalence is highest in least developed countries, at 24 per cent.
The practice of child marriage has continued to decline around the world, largely driven by progress in South Asia, where a girl’s risk of marrying in childhood decreased by about one quarter between 2013 and 2018. In sub-Saharan Africa, levels of child marriage have declined at a more modest rate.
At least 200 million girls and women have been subjected to female genital mutilation, based on data from 30 countries where the practice is concentrated and where nationally representative prevalence data is available. In these countries, the prevalence of this harmful practice declined by one quarter between approximately 2000 and 2018.
According to recent data from some 90 countries, women devote on average roughly three times more hours a day to unpaid care and domestic work than men, limiting the time available for paid work, education and leisure and further reinforcing gender-based socioeconomic disadvantages.
Women continue to be underrepresented at all levels of political leadership. As at 1 January 2019, women’s representation in national Parliaments ranged from 0 to 61.3 per cent, with the average standing at 24.2 per cent, an increase from 19 per cent in 2010. At the local level, data from 99 countries and areas show that women’s representation in elected deliberative bodies varies from less than 1 per cent to 48 per cent, with the median of the distribution at 26 per cent. When legislated gender quotas are adopted, significantly higher proportions of women are elected at both national and local levels.
While women represented 39 per cent of world employment, only 27 per cent of managerial positions in the world were occupied by women in 2018, up only marginally from 26 per cent in 2015. The proportion of women in management has increased since 2000 in all regions except in least developed countries.
In 51 countries with data on the subject, only 57 per cent of women aged 15 to 49, married or in union, make their own decisions about sexual relations and the use of contraceptives and health services.
Over the past 25 years, there has been progress in reforming laws towards improving gender equality, yet discriminatory laws and gaps in legal protection remain in many countries. On the basis of data collected across four areas of law in 2018 from 53 countries, almost a third have legal gaps in the area of overarching legal frameworks and public life (e.g., constitutions, antidiscrimination laws, quotas, legal aid); more than a quarter have legal gaps in the area of violence against women; and 29 per cent and 24 per cent have legal gaps in the employment and economic benefits area and in the marriage and family area, respectively.
Despite progress in implementing gender-responsive budgeting globally, gaps remain in country efforts to establish comprehensive and transparent tracking systems. Based on 2018 data from 69 countries, 13 countries fully met the criteria of having in place a tracking system that measures and makes publicly available gender budget data, and 41 countries approached the requirements.
In 2016, one third of all primary schools lacked basic drinking water, sanitation and hygiene services, affecting the education of millions of schoolchildren, but particularly girls managing menstruation, and one in four health-care facilities worldwide lacked basic water services, affecting more than 2 billion people.
Based on data for 62 countries, the median hourly gender pay gap stood at 12 per cent. The median gender pay gap exceeded 20 per cent in managerial and professional occupations, among workers in crafts and related trades and among plant machine operators and assemblers.
In 2018, one fifth of the world’s youth were not in education, employment or training, meaning that they were neither gaining professional experience nor acquiring or developing skills through educational or vocational programmes in their prime years. There is a stark gender difference. Young women were more than twice as likely as young men to be unemployed or outside the labour force and not in education or training.
Various forms of violence against children persist. In 83 countries (mostly from developing regions) with recent data on the subject, nearly 8 in 10 children from 1 to 14 years of age were subjected to some form of psychological aggression and/or physical punishment at home. In all but seven of these countries, at least half of children experienced violent disciplinary methods. Sexual violence is perhaps the most disturbing of children’s rights violations. Based on the limited data available, in 14 of 46 countries with comparable data, at least 5 per cent of women between the ages of 18 and 29 experienced sexual intercourse or other sexual acts that were forced, physically or in other ways, for the first time before they were 18 years of age.
There has been an overall increase in the detection of victims of trafficking in persons, which could reflect either a positive (enhanced efforts by authorities to identify victims) or negative (larger trafficking problem) development. In a departure from prior findings, recent data show that most trafficking victims were detected domestically: 58 per cent in 2016, up from 43 per cent in 2014. The vast majority (70 per cent) of detected victims of human trafficking were women and girls, most of whom were trafficked for sexual exploitation.
- FHI 360 - Gender Integration Framework
- UN Women - Strategic Plan 2018-2021
- Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom - Feminist Strategies for Implementing the Sustainable Development Goals
- World Bank - World Bank Group Gender Strategy (FY16-23): Gender Equality, Poverty Reduction and Inclusive Growth
- Gender and Security
Women, Peace and Security
UN Security Council Resolutions
Ten United Nations Security Council Resolutions form the basis of the existing global Women, Peace and Security framework. The first, UNSC Resolution 1325, mandated that the gender perspective be integrated throughout all aspects of peace and security and was adopted in 2000. Though these resolutions form the textual framework for the WPS agenda, the agenda is carried out from grassroots women’s movements at the local level all the way up to intergovernmental bodies working on a global scale.
UN Resolution 1325 (October 2000):
Addressed for the first time the disproportionate impact armed conflict has on women. It also acknowledges the unique contributions women can make to peacekeeping, peacebuilding and conflict prevention and resolution. Lastly, the resolution emphasizes the importance of women’s full and equal participation in the peace & security field.
The resolution’s key provisions include:
- Representation of women at decision-making levels
- Women’s contributions to peacekeeping, importance of gender perspective in UN missions, UN programming, and in post conflict societies
- Special needs of women, children post conflict society
UN Resolution 1820 (June 2008):
Recognizes sexual violence as a tactic of war and acknowledges that rape and sexual violence more broadly can constitute war crimes, a crime against humanity, or a constitutive act with respect to genocide. The resolution also calls to train troops to respond to and prevent sexual violence. Lastly, it calls for more deployment of women to peace operations.
UN Resolution 1888 (September 2009):
Emphasizes the exacerbating effect of sexual violence on armed conflict and the fact that it impedes peace and security. It calls for leadership to address conflict related sexual violence. The resolution calls for the deployment of a Team of Experts to cases of sexual violence. It calls for the appointment of the Special representative on sexual violence in conflict, and establishes the Women Protection Advisers within peacekeeping missions.
UN Resolution 1889 (October 2009):
Highlights post-conflict peacebuilding and women’s participation at all stages of the peace process. It calls for the development of indicators that would measure the implementation of Resolution 1325.
UN Resolution 1960 (December 2010):
Calls for an end of sexual violence in armed conflict. It sets up a naming and shaming mechanism. Consequences of sexual violence include being listed in the Secretary General’s Annual Report, referrals to the ICC and UN Sanctions Committee, international condemnation and reparations.
UN Resolution 2106 (June 2013):
Attempts to operationalize current obligations instead of creating new initiatives. It includes language on women’s participation in combating sexual violence. It calls for the further deployment of Women Protection Advisors, and that these advisors are properly trained and assessed. It further states that all parties involved (Security Council, belligerents in armed conflict and States must do more to combat immunity for sexual violence crimes and to implement prior mandates.
UN Resolution 2122 (October 2013):
Affirms an integrated approach to sustainable peace and sets concrete methods to counter the deficit in women’s participation. It emphasizes the necessity of addressing root causes of armed conflict and the security risks women face. It asks to provide multi sectoral services to women impacted by conflict. It mentions the ATT twice, thus linking disarmament and gender equality.
UN Resolution 2242 (October 2015):
Promotes assessing the strategies and resources related to implementing the WPS agenda. It emphasizes the value of collaborating with civil society and calls for more funding for gender-responsive training, analysis and programs. It sees gender as a crosscutting issue within CVE/CT Agendas. It also recognizes the value of integrating WPS across all country situations.
UN Resolution 2467 (April 2019):
Notes that sexual violence in conflict occurs on a continuum of violence against women and girls, notes national responsibility to address root causes (noting that structural gender inequality and discrimination is a root cause), and recognizes the need for survivor-centered approach. The resolution asks member states to ensure prevention & response are nondiscriminatory and specific, and both prioritizes and respects the needs of survivors. It affirms services should include provisions for women with children born as a result of sexual violence and asks member states to strengthen policies around challenging assumptions of male invulnerability. It urges member states to strengthen access to justice for victims.
UN Resolution 2493 (October 2019):
Urges countries supporting peace processes to facilitate the full, equal and meaningful participation of women, including at the earliest stages. It also asked States to address threats, harassment, violence and hate speech, and to remain committed to increasing the number of civilian and uniformed women in peacekeeping operations.
United States Policy
- USAID - 2020 Women, Peace and Security Implementation Plan
- Department of Defense - Women, Peace and Security Strategic Framework and Implementation Plan
- Department of State - Plan to Implement the U.S. Strategy on Women, Peace and Security
- Department of Homeland Security - Implementation Plans for the U.S. Strategy on Women, Peace and Security
The Gender and Security Agenda: Strategies for the 21st Century
Edited by Michael Brown and Chantal de Jonge Oudraat
Routledge Handbook of Gender and Security
Edited by Caron E. Gentry, Laura J. Shepherd and Laura Sjoberg
“Wartime Sexual Violence”
Dara Kay Cohen, Amelia Hoover Green, and Elisabeth Jean Wood
United States Institute of Peace
“Women Building Resilient Cities in the Context of Climate Change”
Georgetown Institute for Women, Peace and Security
“Tracking Women’s Participation in Informal Peace Processes”
Georgetown Institute for Women, Peace and Security
“Reframing Women’s Roles in Peace Processes”
Georgetown Institute for Women, Peace and Security
“Advancing Women’s Participation in Track II Peace Processes”
Georgetown Institute for Women, Peace and Security
United States Institute of Peace
Gender Inclusive Framework and Theory (with section on masculinities)
- Masculinities in International Affairs
- Men and Masculinities in International Affairs Research
- Terrell Carver
- “Not the Usual Suspects: Engaging Male Champions of Women, Peace and Security”
- Our Secure Future
- "Engaging Men and Boys and Transforming Masculinities for the Realization of CEDAW’s Mandates"
- “So, You Want to Be a Male Ally for Gender Equality? (And You Should)”
- “Masculine Norms and Violence: Making the Connections”
- Men and Masculinities in International Affairs Research
- Gender and COVID-19
- Learning and Teaching Toolkit from SOAS at the University of London
We are actively seeking additional resources to share with our faculty. Please contact [email protected] with any recommendations.