2011 Books

January 01, 2011
book cover: Risk Sharing in Finance

Hossein Askari, Iran Professor of International Business and International Affairs

Risk Sharing in Finance: The Islamic Finance Alternative. Hossein Askari, Zamir Iqbal, Noureddine Krichene, and Abbas Mirakhor. n.p. Wiley, December 2011.

The recent U.S. financial debacle has affected the entire world and led to major reviews of risk management in financial institutions. Perhaps a simpler alternative is just to adopt the systems used for centuries in Islamic finance. Risk Sharing in Finance expounds upon this novel idea, suggesting that the Islamic financial system can be developed for use around the world by providing a helpful paradigm for crafting global financial reforms.

Demonstrating how Islamic finance can successfully expand its array of risk sharing instruments, for example issuing government shares to finance development projects and placing limits on short sales and leveraging, the book makes a compelling case for thinking outside the box to redevelop a vibrant stock market.

book cover: Humanitarianism Contested

Michael N. Barnett, University Professor of International Affairs and Political Science

Humanitarianism Contested: Where Angels Fear to Tread. Michael Barnett and Thomas G. Weiss. n.p.: Routledge, February 2011.

This book provides a succinct but sophisticated understanding of humanitarianism and insight into the on-going dilemmas and tensions that have accompanied it since its origins in the early nineteenth century.

An accessible and engaging work by two of the leading scholars in the field, Humanitarianism Contested is essential reading for all those concerned with the future of human rights and international relations.

book cover: Empire of Humnaity

Michael N. Barnett, University Professor of International Affairs and Political Science

Empire of Humanity: A History of Humanitarianism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 2011.

Empire of Humanity explores humanitarianism's remarkable growth from its humble origins in the early nineteenth century to its current prominence in global life. Based on extensive archival work, close encounters with many of today's leading international agencies, and interviews with dozens of aid workers in the field and at headquarters, Empire of Humanity provides a history that is both global and intimate.

Avoiding both romanticism and cynicism, Empire of Humanity explores humanitarianisms enduring themes, trends, and, most strikingly, ethical ambiguities. Humanitarianism hopes to change the world, but the world has left its mark on humanitarianism. Humanitarianism has undergone three distinct global ages — imperial, postcolonial, and liberal — each of which has shaped what humanitarianism can do and what it is. The world has produced not one humanitarianism, but instead varieties of humanitarianism. Furthermore, Barnett observes that the world of humanitarianism is divided between an emergency camp that wants to save lives and nothing else and an alchemist camp that wants to remove the causes of suffering. These camps offer different visions of what are the purpose and principles of humanitarianism, and, accordingly respond differently to the same global challenges and humanitarianism emergencies. Humanitarianism has developed a metropolis of global institutions of care, amounting to a global governance of humanity. This humanitarian governance, Barnett observes, is an empire of humanity: it exercises power over the very individuals it hopes to emancipate.

Although many use humanitarianism as a symbol of moral progress, Barnett provocatively argues that humanitarianism has undergone its most impressive gains after moments of radical inhumanity, when the international community believes that it must atone for its sins and reduce the breach between what we do and who we think we are. Humanitarianism is not only about the needs of its beneficiaries; it also is about the needs of the compassionate.

book cover: Eisenhower and the Cold War Economy

William H. Becker, Professor of History and International Affairs; Chair, Department of History

Eisenhower and the Cold War Economy. William M. McClenahan, Jr., and William H. Becker. JHU Pr., 2011.

Throughout his two-term presidency, Dwight D. Eisenhower faced the challenge of managing a period of peacetime prosperity after more than two decades of depression, war, and postwar inflation. The essential issue he addressed was how the country would pay for the deepening Cold War and the extent to which such unprecedented peacetime commitments would affect the United States economy and its institutions.

William M. McClenahan, Jr., and William H. Becker explain how Eisenhower's beliefs and his experiences as a military bureaucrat and wartime and postwar commander shaped his economic policies. They explore the macro- and microeconomic policies his administration employed to finance the Cold War while adapting Republican ideas and Eisenhower's economic principles to new domestic and foreign policy environments. They also detail how Eisenhower worked with new instruments of government policy making, such as the Council of Economic Advisers and a strengthened Federal Reserve Board. In assessing his administration's policies, the authors demonstrate that, rather than focusing overwhelmingly on international political affairs at the expense of economic issues, Eisenhower's policies aimed to preserve and enhance the performance of the American free market system, which he believed was inextricably linked to the successful prosecution of the Cold War. While some of the decisions Eisenhower made did not follow conservative doctrine as closely as many in the Republican Party wanted, this book asserts that his approach to and distrust of partisan politics led to success on many fronts and indeed maintained and buttressed the nation's domestic and international economic health.

An important and original contribution, this examination of the Eisenhower administration's economic policy enriches our understanding of the history of the modern American economy, the presidency, and conservatism in the United States.

book cover: Do Democracies Win Their Wars?

Michael E. Brown, Dean of the Elliott School of International Affairs; Professor of International Affairs and Political Science

Do Democracies Win Their Wars? An International Security Reader. Brown, Michael E., Owen R. Coté, Sean M. Lynn-Jones, and Steven E. Miller. eds. Cambridge, MA: MIT Pr., 2011.

In recent years, a new wave of scholarship has argued that democracies have unique advantages that enable them to compete vigorously in international politics. Challenging long-held beliefs — some of which go back to Thucydides' account of the clash between democratic Athens and authoritarian Sparta — that democracy is a liability in the harsh world of international affairs, many scholars now claim that democracies win most of their wars. [This research suggests that democracies emerge victorious because they prudently choose to fight wars that they can win, and because they can marshal more resources, make better decisions, and muster public support for their military campaigns.] Critics counter that democracy itself makes little difference in war and that other factors, such as overall power, determine whether a country tastes victory or defeat. In some cases, such as the Vietnam War, democracy may even have contributed to defeat.

The book includes crucial contributions to the debate over democracy and military victory, presenting important theoretical, conceptual, and empirical arguments.

book cover: The Dynamics of Democratization

Nathan J. Brown, Professor of Political Science and International Affairs

The Dynamics of Democratization. Brown, Nathan J. ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, April 2011.

The explosive spread of democracy has radically transformed the international political landscape and captured the attention of academics, policy makers, and activists alike. With interest in democratization still growing, Nathan J. Brown and other leading political scientists assess the current state of the field, reflecting on the causes and diffusion of democracy over the past two decades.

The volume focuses on three issues very much at the heart of discussions about democracy today: dictatorship, development, and diffusion. The essays first explore the surprising but necessary relationship between democracy and authoritarianism; they next analyze the introduction of democracy in developing countries; last, they examine how international factors affect the democratization process.

In exploring these key issues, the contributors ask themselves three questions: What causes a democracy to emerge and succeed? Does democracy make things better? Can democracy be successfully promoted? In contemplating these questions,The Dynamics of Democratization offers a frank and critical assessment of the field for students and scholars of comparative politics and the political economy of development.

book cover: Essentials of World Regional Geography

Elizabeth Chacko, Associate Professor of Geography and International Affairs; Chair, Department of Geography

Essentials of World Regional Geography, 2nd edition. George White, Joseph Dymond, Elizabeth Chacko, and Michael Bradshaw. (McGraw-Hill Publishers, 2011)

This shorter version of the highly successful Contemporary World Regional Geography, 3e gives readers a fresh new approach that combines fundamental geographical elements, internal regional diversity, and contemporary issues. This approach allows serious discussion of cultural and environmental issues, as well as political and economic issues. The main innovation in this completely rewritten text is in the ordering of the material covered. While other texts cut photos, illustrations, and boxed material from their WRG books, this essentials version is a completely rewritten text by the authors of Contemporary World Regional Geography, 3e.

Each of the nine regional chapters opens with a one- or two-page map of the region, short accounts of people or events to provide a personal flavor of the region, an outline of the chapter contents, and a short section placing the region in its wider global context. Each regional chapter is consistently organized by three sections. The first section summarizes the distinctive physical and human geographies of the region; the second section explores the internal diversity of the region at subregional, selected country, and local levels. The third section focuses on a selection of contemporary issues that are important to the people of each region and frequently have implications for the rest of the world. Each regional chapter follows the same framework, allowing students to easily make comparisons from one world region to the next.

Students are encouraged to consider what it means to be part of a global community and to develop their geographical understandings of world events. The authors have created a text that is readable, with a consistent structure within chapters, containing superior maps and illustrations, and finally — to offer a concise and more affordable text.

Law in a New Key book cover

Robert Eisen, Professor of Religion and International Affairs

The Peace and Violence of Judaism From the Bible to Modern Zionism, n.p.: Oxford Univ Pr., January 2011.

Religious violence has become one of the most pressing issues of our time. Robert Eisen provides the first comprehensive analysis of Jewish views on peace and violence by examining texts in five major areas of Judaism — the Bible, rabbinic Judaism, medieval Jewish philosophy, Kabbalah, and modern Zionism. He demonstrates that throughout its history, Judaism has consistently exhibited ambiguity regarding peace and violence.

To make his case, Eisen presents two distinct analyses of the texts in each of the areas under consideration: one which argues that the texts in question promote violence toward non-Jews, and another which argues that the texts promote peace. His aim is to show that both readings are valid and authentic interpretations of Judaism. Eisen also explores why Judaism can be read both ways by examining the interpretive techniques that support each reading.

The Peace and Violence of Judaism will be an essential resource not only for students of Judaism, but for students of other religions. Many religions exhibit ambiguity regarding peace and violence. This study provides a model for analyzing this important phenomenon.

Law in a New Key book cover

Amitai Etzioni, University Professor and Professor of International Affairs; Director, Institute for Communitarian Policy Studies

Law in a New Key: Essays on Law and Society. n.p.: Quid Pro, LLC, January 2011.

In Law in a New Key, Etzioni addresses hot-bed issues of terrorism, drone warfare, airport security and TSA scanners, government surveillance, internet privacy, norms of social disapproval and forgiveness, human rights, the failure of law and economics, and respect for ethnic cultural differences. He shares his perspective as one who fought in a resistance, and then later became a professor at Columbia University and GW.

The perspective and his decades of academic research persuaded him that the answer to thorny legal and policy issues is found neither in unyielding devotion to individual rights at all costs nor to reflexive empowerment of the state in times of crisis and pain. The answer is in moral dialogs, respect for the basic right to live and to security, responsible checks on power, and a balancing of interests that all must be seen as legitimate in a world of pundits and partisans that want us to choose simply one right and ignore the others and the public cost. What good is the right to privacy if the right to live is sacrificed as the right-holder is blown out of the sky? If new technologies make it possible to conduct terrorism and crime without the law catching up? What happens when respect for one religious position means choosing among religious positions?

The Computing Machines of Charles Babbage book cover

David Alan Grier, Associate Professor of International Science and Technology Policy and International Affairs

The Computing Machines of Charles Babbage. Grier, David Alan, ed. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society, January 2011.

Includes seven classic articles from IEEE Annals of the History of Computing and an all-new essay on Babbage by David Alan Grier.

With original introductory materials, the new essay "Overview of Babbage's Computing Machines," and a list of supplementary references, this EssentialSet adds depth and context to seven papers about Babbage's machines.

Taken together, the Set provides a modern perspective on Babbage's designs as described by engineers who understood the nature of modern computers and how Babbage's designs differ from our machines. This perspective is more familiar to contemporary readers than the descriptions prepared by Babbage and his contemporaries, and they give a fuller picture of how these machines were intended to operate.

book cover: Toward a Theory os Spacepower

Henry Hale, Associate Professor of Political Science and International Affairs

Russia in the 2000s: A Stereoscopic View, in Russan, Henry Hale and Ivan Kurilla, eds., n.p.: Planeta, October 2011.

book cover:Ulbrichts Mauer

Hope Harrison, Associate Professor of History and International Affairs

Ulbrichts Mauer. Wie die SED Moskaus Widerstand gegen den Mauerbau brach
(Ulbricht's Wall: How the SED Broke Moscow's Resistance to Building the Wall), in German, n.p.: Propyläen Verlag, March 2011.

book cover: Toward a Theory os Spacepower

Peter L. Hays, Professorial Lecturer

Toward a Theory of Spacepower: Selected Essays, Charles D. Lutes and Peter L. Hays with Vincent A Manzo, Lisa M. Yambrick, and M. Elaine Bunn, eds. National Defense Univ. Pr., February 2011.

book cover: Space and Security

Peter L. Hays, Professorial Lecturer

Space and Security: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, March 2011.

This thorough examination of the roots and motivations for U.S. national security space policy provides an essential foundation for considering current space security issues.

Two-and-a-half years before Russia launched the first Sputnik satellites in 1957, the United States had already established a secret policy that emphasized peaceful applications of space technology and set the precedent of using satellite overflight for reconnaissance collection. Almost all of the organization and management structures that were created in the 1950s continue to affect U.S. national security space policy today.

During the Cold War era, space was an important arena for the clashing superpowers, yet the United States government chose not to station weapons there. Today, new space security dynamics are evolving that reflect the growing global focus upon the broad potential contributions of space capabilities to global prosperity and security.

Space and Security: A Reference Handbook examines how the United States has developed and implemented policies designed to use space capabilities to enhance national security, providing a clear and complete evaluation of the origins and motivations for U.S. national security space policies and activities. The author explains the Eisenhower Administration's quest to develop high-technology intelligence collection platforms to open up the closed Soviet state, and why it focused on developing a legal regime to legitimize satellite overflight for the purposes of gathering intelligence.

book cover: The Challenge of Economic Development

Norman Hicks, Professorial Lecturer

The Challenge of Economic Development: A Survey of Issues and Constraints Facing Developing Countries, Bloomington, IN: Authorhouse, May 2011.

The Challenge of Economic Development provides a general overview of the challenges of economic development for the five billion people living in developing countries. While they constitute over 80 percent of the world's population, they account for only 40% of the world's output, and are home to 2.6 billion people living on less than $2.00 per day. Thinking on economic development has shifted over time. Early theories that stressed capital formation and a heavy reliance on the public sector proved inadequate. Gradually, economists began to see that development was a complex, multifaceted problem that combined economic issues with problems of poverty and income distribution, institution building and governance. While there have been many failures, there have also been many successes. Countries such as China, Chile, Ghana, and Korea demonstrate that good policies and strong institutions can result in remarkable progress. However, many poor countries, particularly those in Africa continue to lag behind. Closing this gap remains a major challenge for the world, particularly as the growing population and output of developing countries accelerate tensions in such areas as trade, immigration and financial flows.

book cover: Fragments of the Afghan Frontier

Benjamin Hopkins, Assistant Professor of History and International Affairs

Fragments of the Afghan Frontier. Oxford University Press, 2011.

The border between Afghanistan and Pakistan's northwest territories has a long and violent past. Through a collage of historical narrative and ethnographic research, Magnus Marsden and Benjamin D. Hopkins disprove the stereotypes and simplistic assessments that obscure a truer picture of the frontier, exposing the web of difficulties now facing local and international actors.

This border region is anything but an isolated depot filled with radical terrorists and tribesmen. The frontier is rich with meaning, determined by centuries of movement by its inhabitants and their conceptions of those who operate outside their world. Fragments of the Afghan Frontier gives readers a deeper understanding of an evolving region that grows ever more significant as the West enhances its counterterrorist campaigns.

book cover: From Spendthrifts to Misers

Stephen Kaplan, Assistant Professor of Political Science and International Affairs

From Spendthrifts to Misers: Globalization and Latin American Politicians, ProQuest, UMI Dissertation Publishing, September 2011.

Deepening globalization over the last few decades has magnified long-standing tensions between states and markets. My dissertation examines these tensions by exploring political behavior during Latin American elections in a globalized world. It employs a multi-method research strategy to explain a fascinating puzzle: why have many of Latin America's chief executives embraced economic austerity before elections? Political-economic theory uniformly assumes that politicians operating in settings like Latin America are both opportunistic and institutionally weakly constrained, and will use whatever means necessary to secure an electoral victory. They are expected to hit the economy's gas pedal before elections, calculating that an accelerated economy — even at the cost of inflation — will yield more votes. But Latin American economies do not shift into a high-growth, high-inflation phase before elections. In fact, a chapter of my dissertation shows that politicians take the opposite actions from the one this theory would predict; in recent decades, they hit the brakes before elections. They exhibit strict fiscal discipline and tight monetary policy. My large-N test of 16 Latin American countries, observed between 1961 and 2006, shows that, after the 1980s, Latin American economies did not undergo political business cycles. What explains this striking fact? In my dissertation, I argue that two structural shocks have led to a reversal of the political business cycle. The first shock was the dramatic shift from a centralized to decentralized external financing regime after the 1980s debt crisis. A heavy reliance on globally capital markets muffled Latin American governments' voice and influence in their lending relationship with international creditors, curtailing their ability to fund economic expansions. The second shock was Latin America's 1980s hyperinflation trauma. Hyper-inflation not only led to the breakdown of economic and social order, but also left a lasting mark on the Latin American consciousness. It chiseled into policymakers' minds that election-period expansions had grave consequences. In the short-run economic trade-off between jobs and inflation, they came to value inflation stabilization more highly than growth. Strikingly, presidents reinterpreted the traditional political logic, opting to limit their election-year outlays to appease not only markets, but also an inflation-sensitive electorate.

book cover: Decentralization in Uganda

Gina Lambright, Assistant Professor of Political Science and International Affairs

Decentralization in Uganda: Explaining Successes and Failures in Local Governance. Boulder, CO: First Forum Pr., February 2011.

Why do some African local governments perform well, while others fail to deliver even the most basic services to their constituents? Gina Lambright finds answers to this question in her investigation of the factors that contribute to good — and those that result in ineffective — institutional performance at the district level in Uganda. Examining the conditions under which local populations are able to shape the performance of their local governments, she adeptly combines quantitative analysis across 56 Ugandan district governments with in-depth case studies of Lira, Mpigi, and Bushenyi.

book cover: John F. Kennedy and the Race to the Moon

John M. Logsdon, Professor Emeritus of Political Science and International Affairs

John F. Kennedy and the Race to the Moon. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2011.

While there are many biographies of John F. Kennedy and numerous accounts of the early years of US space efforts, there has to date been no comprehensive account of how the actions taken by JFK's administration have shaped the course of the US space program over the last 45 years. This book, based on primary source material and interviews with key participants, is such an account. It tells the story of how JFK, only four months in office, decided that the US national interest required the country to enter and win the space race by reaching the moon 'before this decade is out.' It traces the evolution of his thinking and policy up until his assassination, which brought to an end his plans to moderate the space program's goals and explore collaboration with the Soviets.

book cover: Revolution in the Arab World

Marc Lynch, Associate Professor of Political Science and International Affairs

Revolution in the Arab World: Tunisia, Egypt, And the Unmaking of an Era. n.p.: Foreign Policy, 2011. eBook.

Where did this wave of anger come from? Why did it begin in Tunisia, and what does it mean? This special report starts with a revelatory first chapter that shows how the revolutionary rumblings were ignored, dating back to Issandr El Amrani's prescient warning to Barack Obama in January 2010: Egypt, he wrote, could be the ticking time bomb that overwhelms your international agenda. The coverage also includes a dramatic day-by-day retelling of the battle to hold Tahrir Square, insider accounts of Washington's flip-flopping and struggle to keep up with events, and some of the world's leading authors and experts on where we go from here.

Consider it a guidebook for these revolutionary times.

book cover: Cultural Anthropology

Barbara Miller, Professor of Anthropology and International Affairs; Associate Dean for Faculty Affairs; Director, Culture in Global Affairs Research and Policy Program; Director, Global Gender Program

Cultural Anthropology, 6th Edition. n.p.: Pearson, November 2010.

Through clear writing, a balanced theoretical approach, and engaging examples, Barbara Miller stresses the importance of social inequality and human rights, the environment, culture change and applied aspects of anthropology. Rich examples of gender, ethnicity, race, class, and age thread through the topical coverage of economic systems, the life-cycle, health, kinship, social organization, politics, language, religion, and expressive culture. In addition, the last two chapters address how migration is changing world cultures, and how the importance of local cultural values and needs are shaping international development policies and programs.

book cover: Cultural Anthropology

Kimberly J. Morgan, Associate Professor of Political Science and International Affairs

The Delegated Welfare State: Medicare, Markets, and the Governance of Social Policy. Kimberly J. Morgan and Andrea Louise Campbell. n.p.: Oxford UP, September 2011.

Why are so many American social programs delegated to private actors? And what are the consequences for efficiency, accountability, and the well-being of beneficiaries? The Delegated Welfare State examines the development of the American welfare state through the lens of delegation: how policymakers have avoided direct governmental provision of benefits and services, turning to non-state actors for the governance of social programs. Utilizing case studies of Medicare and the 2009-10 health care reform, Morgan and Campbell argue that the prevalence of delegated governance reflects the powerful role of interest groups in American politics, the dominance of Congress in social policymaking, and deep contradictions in American public opinion. Americans want both social programs and small government, leaving policy makers in a bind. Contracting out public programs to non-state actors masks the role of the state and enlists private allies who push for passage. Although delegated governance has been politically expedient, enabling the growth of government programs in an anti-government political climate, it raises questions about fraud, abuse, administrative effectiveness, and accountability. In probing both the causes and consequences of delegated governance,The Delegated Welfare State offers a novel interpretation of both American social welfare politics and the nature of the American state.

book cover: Perspectives on International Relations

Henry Nau, Professor of Political Science and International Affairs; Director, U.S.-Japan-South Korea Legislative Exchange Program

Perspectives on International Relations: Power, Institutions, and Ideas. Washington, DC: CQ Press, May 2011.

This third edition of Henry Nau's popular introductory textbook on international relations, updated to include the rise of emerging nations, the global financial crisis, and contrasts between the Bush and Obama administrations, is now used at over 200 institutions, including, among others, Cornell, Yale, UC Berkeley, UCLA, Notre Dame, Ohio State, US Naval Academy, University of Florida, Wesleyan University, and the Free University of Berlin. A companion reader, International Relations in Perspective (CQ Press, 2010), supplements the text with original contributions from other scholars annotated by Professor Nau.

book cover:The Economics of the Middle East and North Africa

Joseph Pelzman, Professor of Economics and International Affairs; Professorial Lecturer of Law

The Economics of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), n.p.: World Scientific, September 2011.

The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is a large, complex, and diverse region, which faces a wide range of economic issues. The MENA group includes Algeria, Bahrain, Cyprus, Djibouti, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. This book uses analytical tools drawn from the trade, labor, finance, and development literature to critically analyze and compare these countries' economic policies.

The approach taken in this book is to focus on the economic policies and institutional arrangements which have evolved in MENA and which may serve to explain the differences in each country's economic performance. The key objective of the book is to unravel the context-specific variety of growth-promoting policies within MENA rather than focus on specific countries.

This book stresses that the poor performance of Arab MENA can be chiefly explained by their aversion to a Western paradigm of market economics. In the advanced industrial countries and in Israel, "globalization" is largely viewed in economic terms — the free movement of goods, services, labor and capital across borders. In the Arab MENA, however, "globalization" is viewed in largely ideological terms and has been regarded as a new version of imperialism. Consequently, the Arab MENA region remains one of the most un-globalized regions in the world.

book cover: Leaders at War

Elizabeth N. Saunders, Assistant Professor of Political Science and International Affairs

Leaders at War: How Presidents Shape Military Interventions. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2011.

One of the most contentious issues in contemporary foreign policy — especially in the United States — is the use of military force to intervene in the domestic affairs of other states. Some military interventions explicitly try to transform the domestic institutions of the states they target; others do not, instead attempting only to reverse foreign policies or resolve disputes without trying to reshape the internal landscape of the target state.

In Leaders at War, Elizabeth N. Saunders provides a framework for understanding when and why great powers seek to transform foreign institutions and societies through military interventions. She highlights a crucial but often-overlooked factor in international relations: the role of individual leaders.

Saunders argues that leaders' threat perceptions — specifically, whether they believe that threats ultimately originate from the internal characteristics of other states — influence both the decision to intervene and the choice of intervention strategy. These perceptions affect the degree to which leaders use intervention to remake the domestic institutions of target states. Using archival and historical sources, Saunders concentrates on U.S. military interventions during the Cold War, focusing on the presidencies of Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Johnson. After demonstrating the importance of leaders in this period, she also explores the theory's applicability to other historical and contemporary settings including the post-Cold War period and the war in Iraq.

book cover: The Unraveling

John R. Schmidt, Professorial Lecturer

The Unraveling: Pakistan in the Age of Jihad. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, September 2011.

How did a nation founded as a homeland for South Asian Muslims, most of whom follow a tolerant nonthreatening form of Islam, become a haven for Al Qaeda and a rogue's gallery of domestic jihadist and sectarian groups?

In this groundbreaking history of Pakistan's involvement with radical Islam, John R. Schmidt, the senior U.S. political analyst in Pakistan in the years before 9/11, places the blame squarely on the rulers of the country, who thought they could use Islamic radicals to advance their foreign policy goals without having to pay a steep price. This strategy worked well at first — in Afghanistan during the anti-Soviet jihad, in Kashmir in support of a local uprising against Indian rule, and again in Afghanistan in backing the Taliban in the Afghan civil war. But the government's plans would begin to unravel in the wake of 9/11, when the rulers' support for the U.S. war on terror caused many of their jihadist allies to turn against them. Today the army generals and feudal politicians who run Pakistan are by turns fearful of the consequences of going after these groups and hopeful that they can still be used to advance the state's interests.

The Unraveling is the clearest account yet of the complex, dangerous relationship between the leaders of Pakistan and jihadist groups — and how the rulers' decisions have led their nation to the brink of disaster and put other nations at great risk. Can they save their country or will we one day find ourselves confronting the first nuclear-armed jihadist state?

Charting China's Future: Domestic and International Challenges book cover

David Shambaugh, Professor of Political Science and International Affairs; Director, China Policy Program, Elliott School of International Affairs

Charting China's Future: Domestic and International Challenges. Shambaugh, David. ed. n.p.: Routledge, June 2011.

Charting China's Future provides informed analysis on the complexities of today's China, and where these complexities may lead, from some of the world's leading Asia experts. The contributors have provided clear, intelligible, and forward-looking analyses, free of social science jargon and extensive footnotes. Probing into many of the key domestic and external issues facing China today from political, economic and social perspectives the book proffers a forward-looking analysis that will appeal to anyone with a professional, academic or personal interest in the big issues facing today's China and its interaction with the world. Readers will find much to contemplate about China's future in this volume, and will gain a clearer sense of the key variables and possible trajectories of one of the most consequential countries on the planet.

book cover: Partners in Paradise

Robert Shepherd, Assistant Professor of Anthropology, Honors and International Affairs

Partners in Paradise: Tourism Practices, Heritage Policies, and Anthropological Sites, New York, Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, Frankfurt am Main, Oxford, Wien: Peter Lang Publishing, November 2011.

How and why do some places in the world become symbols of illusive paradise, and what does this mean for their residents? Moving between anthropology, tourism, and the increasingly influential cultural heritage movement, Partners in Paradise examines the origins of a Euro-American fascination with places imagined to exist outside of Modernity. Focusing on the emergence of Tibet and Bali as, in turn, anthropological field sites, tourist destinations, and cultural heritage sites, it argues that the work of academic researchers, tourists, and cultural preservationists inform and constitute each other, in the process constructing particular places as «paradise». Unpacking this process is a necessary first step in understanding how Tibetans and Balinese negotiate their place in a modern world in which the meaning of «paradise» is contested. Drawing on anthropology, history, and tourist studies, Partners in Paradise offers a unique lens on the politics of development, modernization, and cultural preservation.

book cover: Economic Development

Stephen Smith, Professor of Economics and International Affairs; Director, Institute for International Economic Policy

Economic Development, 11th edition. Michael P. Todaro and Stephen C. Smith. n.p.: Prentice Hall, 2011.

A complete, balanced introduction to the theory, issues, and latest research.

Stephen Smith and Michael Todaro take a policy-oriented approach, presenting economic theory in the context of critical policy debates and country-specific case studies so students see how theory relates to the problems and prospects of developing countries.

book cover: Mobilizing Restraint

Emmanuel Teitelbaum, Assistant Professor of Political Science and International Affairs; Director, Master of Arts Program in Asian Studies

Mobilizing Restraint: Democracy and Industrial Conflict in Post-Reform South Asia. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, June 2011.

In Mobilizing Restraint, Emmanuel Teitelbaum argues that, contrary to conventional wisdom, democracies are better at managing industrial conflict than authoritarian regimes. This is because democracies have two unique tools at their disposal for managing worker protest: mutually beneficial union-party ties and worker rights. By contrast, authoritarian governments have tended to repress unions and to sever mutually beneficial ties to organized labor. Many of the countries that fall between these two extremes — from those that have only the trappings of democracy to those that have imperfectly implemented democratic reforms — exert control over labor in the absence of overt repression but without the robust organizational and institutional capacity enjoyed by full-fledged democracies. Based on the recent history of industrial conflict and industrial peace in South Asia, Teitelbaum argues that the political exclusion and repression of organized labor commonly witnessed in authoritarian and hybrid regimes has extremely deleterious effects on labor relations and ultimately economic growth.

To test his arguments, Teitelbaum draws on an array of data, including his original qualitative interviews and survey evidence from Sri Lanka and three Indian states — Kerala, Maharashtra, and West Bengal. He also analyzes panel data from fifteen Indian states to evaluate the relationship between political competition and worker protest and to study the effects of protective labor legislation on economic performance. In Teitelbaum's view, countries must undergo further political liberalization before they are able to replicate the success of the sophisticated types of growth-enhancing management of industrial protest seen throughout many parts of South Asia.

book cover: War and Conflict in Africa

Paul Williams, Associate Professor of International Affairs

War and Conflict in Africa. n.p.: Polity, September 2011.

Paul Williams offers the first comparative assessment of more than two hundred armed conflicts which took place in Africa between 1990 and 2009 — from the continental catastrophe in the Democratic Republic of Congo to the environmental disaster in the Niger Delta and mass atrocities in the Sudan. Taking a broad comparative approach to examine the political contexts in which these wars occurred, he explores the key ingredients that provoked them and the major international responses undertaken to deliver lasting peace.

Part I, Contexts, provides an overview of the most important attempts to measure the number and scale of Africa's armed conflicts and provides a conceptual and political sketch of the terrain of struggle upon which these wars were waged.

Part II, Ingredients, analyses the role of five widely debated features of Africa's wars: the dynamics of neopatrimonial systems of governance; the construction and manipulation of ethnic identities; questions of sovereignty and self-determination; as well as the impact of natural resources and religion.

Part III, Responses, discusses four major international reactions to Africa's wars: attempts to build a new institutional architecture to help promote peace and security on the continent; this architecture's two main policy instruments, peacemaking initiatives and peacekeeping operations; and efforts to develop the continent.

War and Conflict in Africa will be essential reading for all students of international peace and security studies as well as Africa's international relations.

book cover: Defeating Authoritarian Leaders in Postcommunist Countries

Sharon L. Wolchik, Professor of Political Science and International Affairs

Defeating Authoritarian Leaders in Postcommunist Countries. Valerie Bunce and Sharon Wolchik. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, September 2011.

From 1998 to 2005, six elections took place in postcommunist Europe that had the surprising outcome of empowering the opposition and defeating authoritarian incumbents or their designated successors. Valerie J. Bunce and Sharon L. Wolchik compare these unexpected electoral breakthroughs. They draw three conclusions. First, the opposition was victorious because of the hard and creative work of a transnational network composed of local opposition and civil society groups, members of the international democracy assistance community and graduates of successful electoral challenges to authoritarian rule in other countries. Second, the remarkable run of these upset elections reflected the ability of this network to diffuse an ensemble of innovative electoral strategies across state boundaries. Finally, elections can serve as a powerful mechanism for democratic change. This is especially the case when civil society is strong, the transfer of political power is through constitutional means, and opposition leaders win with small mandates.

book cover: Technology of Empire

Daqing Yang, Associate Professor of History and International Affairs

Technology of Empire: Telecommunications and Japanese Expansion in Asia, 1883-1945. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 2011.

In the extension of the Japanese empire in the 1930s and 1940s, technology, geo-strategy, and institutions were closely intertwined in empire building. The central argument of this study of the development of a communications network linking the far-flung parts of the Japanese imperium is that modern telecommunications not only served to connect these territories but, more important, made it possible for the Japanese to envision an integrated empire in Asia. Even as the imperial communications network served to foster integration and strengthened Japanese leadership and control, its creation and operation exacerbated long-standing tensions and created new conflicts within the government, the military, and society in general.